Family : Jacks and pompanos ; Generally in neritic waters over the continental shelf. Ascends rivers . Juveniles abundant in brackish estuaries with muddy bottoms , near sandy beaches and on seagrass beds . Forms fast-moving schools, although larger fish may be solitary. Feeds on smaller fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates . Often grunts or croaks when caught.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Bambara:
Agbre, Gou, Immouhoui
Common Names in Bikol:
Common Names in Carib:
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Creole, French:
Common Names in Creole, Portuguese:
Corcovado, Enforcado, Xar, Xaréu
Common Names in Creoles and Pidgins, French:
Corcovado, Enforcado, Karang, Xaréu
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in English:
Black Cavalla, Black Cavalli, Black-Tailed On Jack, Black-Tailed Trevally, Blacktailed Trevally, Cabali, Cabalo, Carangue, Cocinero, Common Jack, Couvalli Jack, Crevalle, Crevalle Jack, Crevelle Jack, Green Jack, Horse Crevalle, Horse Mackeral, Horse Mackerel, Horse-Eye Jack, Jack, King Fish, Kingfish, Toro, Trevally, Yellow Cavalli
Common Names in Ewe:
Glamata, Pãpã, Pãpãkpoe
Common Names in Fang:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in Fon:
Common Names in Fongbe:
Common Names in French:
Camard, Carangue, Carangue Crevalle, Carangue Macoque, Cavalli, Couvalli, Cranague Crevalle, Crevalle, Crevalle Toro, Grande Carangue, Poisson Japon
Common Names in Galibi:
Common Names in Galoa:
Common Names in Greek:
Alogokokali, Kokalli, Αλογοκοκάλι, Κοκάλι
Common Names in Greek, Modern:
Alogokokali, Kokalli, Αλογοκοκάλι
Common Names in Italian:
Carango Cavallo, Ricciola ´mperiali, Ricciola 'mperiali
Common Names in Japanese:
Hiraaji, Munaguroaji, Uma-Aji
Common Names in Kannada:
Common Names in Krio:
Common Names in Malay:
Common Names in Malayalam:
Kadugapparai, Karivalam-Para, Para, കടുകുപ്പാര, കടുങ്ങാപ്പാറ , കരിവളം പാര, കരിവാലം പാര , പാര, പാറ
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Mandinka:
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Miskito:
Common Names in Oriya:
Common Names in Other:
Camard Cavalli, Carangue, Hourel
Common Names in Palicur:
Common Names in Polish:
Karanks, Karanks Atlantycki
Common Names in Portuguese:
Aracimbora, Cabe, Cabeçudo, Carango, Cáranx, Carimbamba, Cavala, Charo-Largo, Co, Coâ, Corcovado, Corimbamba, Enforcado, Enxareu, Enxareu-Macoa, Guaracema, Guaracimbora, Guaricema, Guiar, Guiará, Guiaru, Macoa, Manezinho, Papaterra, Peixe-Prussiano, Prussiano, Xar, Xarelete, Xaréu, Xaréu Preto, Xaréu-Branco, Xaréu-Cavalão, Xareu-Macoa, Xaréu-Olho-De-Boi, Xaréu-Roncador, Xaréu-Vaqueiro, Xer, Xeréu, Xex, Xexém
Common Names in Russian:
Bolcho, Bolchoï Carankse
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Serer:
Common Names in Spanish:
Caballa, Cavalla, Chumbo, Cocinero, Jiguagua, Jurel, Jurel Aleta Amarilla, Jurel Caballo, Jurel Cola Amarilla, Jurel Comun, Palometa, Sargentillo, Toro
Common Names in Susu:
Kawr, Kawrè Kanki
Common Names in Swedish:
Gull, Gullöpare, Taggmakrill
Common Names in Tamil:
Kilisai, Komaraparai, Para, Parai, Pulli Parai, Semaparai, Thenga Parai, Vennai Parai, கிளிசை, கீளீசை , குமாரபரை, கொமாரா பாறை , சீமபாரை, செமபாறை , தேங்கா பாரை, தேங்கா பாறை , பாரை, பாற , பாறை , புலீ பாறை , புள்ளிக் கென்டை, வெண்ணை பாறை , வென்னை பாரை
Common Names in Telugu:
Manjal Parai, Para, Pulli Parai, పారా , పుల్లి పారై , మంజల్ పారై
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in Unknown:
Agbre, Glamata, Gou, Gouégoué, Immouhoui, Kanki, Kawri, Pampan, Poisson Japon
Common Names in Vili:
Common Names in Wayuu:
Common Names in Wolof:
Saaka, Saka, Sakaï, Sóót, Sott, Sôtt Ou Sotto, Sotto, Tanet
Species Caranx hippos
Distinctive Features: The crevalle jack
has a body depth of about
three times its fork length. It has large eyes. The chest is scaleless
except for a small patch
in front of the pelvic fins. This
patch is apparent by the time the fish reaches
a fork length of 0.98
inches (2.5 cm). The crevalle jack is the only jack in the western
Atlantic Ocean with this patch of scales. There is an oval
spot on the pectoral fins; this appears at about 4.72 inches (12.0
cm). Between the seventh and the eighth spines of the adult
is an overgrowth of skin
. The two most distinguishable features of
this fish are the patch of scales between the pelvic fins and the
oval, black spot
on the pectoral fins.
Coloration : The crevalle jack is greenish-bluish or bluish-black above and silvery white to yellowish or golden below. This serves to blend in with the water from a predator searching from above, and to blend with the sunlight from a predator hunting from below. There is an oval, black spot on the pectoral fins. Juveniles have 5 dark bars on their bodies. These black bars are present until the fish reaches a size of 6.46 inches (16.4 cm). There is an area of dark pigment above the peduncle that appears at 1.18 in. (3.0 cm) and is very dark once the fish reaches a size greater that 3.94 inches (10.0 cm) in length .
The juvenile has pigment spots on the anal spines and membranes , which disappear by the time its size reaches 1.38 inches (3.5 cm). The pelvic fin remains unpigmented after 0.79 inches (20 mm) and at about 1.18 inches (3.0 cm) the pigment of the caudal fins develops. The coloration of the juvenile holds between 0.79-1.57 inches (2.0-4.0 cm) and fades between 1.57-1.97 inches (4.0-5.0 cm).
Dentition: The crevalle jack has three paired patches of small villiform teeth located dorsally . These teeth are larger than the premaxillary teeth. Ventrally, the jack crevalle has a single pair of triangular patches of smaller teeth. These teeth, in combination with the air bladder , are responsible for the croaking noise it makes when it is caught. The fish rasp their upper and lower teeth together, this combined with air bladder resonance, are the factors contributing to the sound .
The maximum size of a crevalle jack is 39.8 inches (101 cm) and 55.1 pounds (25 kg ), however they are common to 23.6 inches (60 cm). After the juvenile reaches a size of 1.97 inches (5.0 cm), its growth rate increases. Females are typically larger than males. Males are commonly 75 cm (Total Length) in length when caught/marketed, but may be as large as 124 cm (Total Length).
The crevalle jack is found in oceanic , estuarine or riverine environments. This is influenced by the life stage of the fish. They primarily are found along the continental shelf, but occur in waters as deep as 327 feet (100 m ). Fish found in these deep waters are usually larger individuals. Larval and juvenile jack crevalles are found in upstream currents and are common in shallow brackish waters. Adults , on the other hand, usually occupy upstream currents, reefs, offshore areas or shallow inshore areas. Jack crevalles live in a variety of temperatures and salinities. Adults usually inhabit areas with temperatures between 64-92.5°F (18-33.6ºC) of water and larvae are found in areas with temperatures between 69-84.9°F (20.4-29.4ºC) of water. Crevalle jacks have been found in fresh water to salt water environments, depending on life stage. Larvae have been collected in areas with salinities between 35.2-36.7 parts per thousand (ppt). Adults have been found in freshwater habitats as well as those with a salinity of 43.8 ppt. They are most commonly found at salinity above 30 ppt. The crevalle jack is a pelagic fish. Both adults and juveniles are usually found in schools. However, larger individuals may be found swimming the waters alone. May be found at depths of 1 to 350 meters.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,901 meters (0 to 6,237 feet).
The spawning season of the crevalle jack is early March to early September. Spawning occurs offshore in the southeastern Atlantic coast and in the Gulf Stream , including any associated currents . The crevalle jack has been found to spawn in both tropical and subtropical environments. The eggs of the crevalle jack are between .03-.04 inches (0.7-0.9 mm) in diameter and the newly hatched larvae are between 0.06-0.07 inches (1.6-1.8 mm) in length . The larva use estuaries as nurseries. In juveniles the small patch scales on the chest form at 0.98 inches (25 mm). The pigmentation of the first dorsal fin decreases above 1.2 inches (30 mm), pigment appears on the second dorsal fin at 1.2 inches (30 mm), and the pelvic fin is unpigmented above 0.8 inches (20 mm). The pectoral spot develops at about 4.7 inches (120 mm).
Two known parasites of the crevalle jack are Stephanostomum ditrematis and Bucephalus varicus, both digenic trematodes . S. ditrematis inhabits the rectum of the host. It is common in fish taken off the coasts of Massachusetts and Florida. This parasite affects all carangids. Another known parasite, B . varicus, inhabits the pyloric junction or the entire length of the intestine. Copepods are also common parasites to the crevalle jack including Anuretes heckelii found on the wall of branchial cavities, Caligus chorinemi and Caligus coryphaenae are both parasitic on the body surface as well as in the branchial cavities, and Lernaeenicus longiventris which is parasitic in the flesh of the fish. Other parasites include protozoans , monogenea (gillworms), cestoda (tapeworms ), and nematoda (roundworms).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Huxley, 1880
- Huxley, 1880
- Cohort: Clupeocephala ()
- Infraclass: Actinopteri ()
- Subclass: Actinopterygii ()
- Class: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Superclass: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Carangus esculentus Girard • Carangus hippos (Linnaeus • Caranx antilliarum Bennett • Caranx caninus Günther • Caranx carangua Lacepède • Caranx carangus (Bloch • Caranx crysos (Mitchill • Caranx defensor Dekay • Caranx erythrurus Lacepède • Caranx esculentus (Girard • Caranx hippos caninus Günther • Caranx hippos hippos (Linnaeus • Caranx hippos tropicus Nichols • Caranx hippus (Linnaeus • Scomber carangus Bloch • Scomber hippos Linnaeus • Trachurus cordyla Gronow
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 16-Feb-1998
Members of the genus Caranx
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 74 species and subspecies in this genus:
Pseudocaranx dentex (Cavallyjack) · C. altissimus (Trevally) · C. amblyrhynchus (Bluntnose Jack) · C. auroguttatus (Goldspotted Jack) · C. bartholomaei (Yellow Jack) · C. bicolor (Bicolor Jack) · C. boops (Yellowband Scad) · C. bucculentus (Wide-Mouthed Trevally) · C. caballus (Green Jack) · C. caeruleopinnatus (Japanese Trevally) · C. caninus (Pacific Crevalle Jack) · C. sexfasciatus (Greenspotted Kingfish) · C. chilensis (Juan Fernandez Trevally) · C. chrysophrys (Club-Nosed Trevally) · Carangoides armatus (Longfin Kingfish) · Carangoides armatus (Longfin Kingfish) · C. crysos (Blue Runner) · C. declivis (Greenback Horse Mackerel) · C. delicatissimus (Hard-Tail Jack) · C. dinema (Twothread Trevally) · C. djedaba (Slender Yellowtail Kingfish) · C. dumerili (Purplish Amberjack) · C. ekala (Turrum) · C. equula (Whitefinned Crevalle) · C. ferdau (Yellowspotted Crevalle) · C. fischeri (Longfin Crevalle Jack) · C. fulvoguttatus (Yellowspotted Kingfish) · C. georgianus (White Trevally) · C. guara (Gwelly) · C. gymnostethus (Naked Breast Trevally) · C. heberi (Yellowtail Kingfish) · C. helvolus (Whitetongued Crevalle) · C. hippo (Crevalle Jack) · C. hippos (Black Cavalla) · C. hippos hippos (Black-Tailed Trevally) · C. humerosus (Duskyshoulder Trevally) · C. ignobilis (Forsskål´s Indo-Pacific Jack Fish) · C. koheru (Koheru) · C. latus (Horse-Eye Trevally) · C. leptolepis (Yellow-Striped Trevally) · C. leucurus (Bluntnose Jack) · C. lugubris (Black Tongue Fish) · C. lutescens (Araara) · C. macarellus (Mackerel Scad) · C. maruadsi (White-Tipped Mackerel Scad) · C. medusicola (Black-Tipped Trevally) · C. melampygus (Black-Tipped Silver-Biddy) · C. mentalis (Heavy-Jawed Kingfish) · C. nobilis (White Travally) · C. oblongus (Oblique-Banded Trevally) · C. orthogrammus (Yellow-Spotted Trevally) · C. otrynter (Threadfin Jack) · C. papuensis (Brassey Trevally) · C. paraspistes (Shortfinned Trevally) · C. plagiotaenia (Obliquebanded Trevally) · C. praeustus (Brown-Backed Trevally) · C. punctatus (Summer Stonebrass) · C. radiatus (Fringe-Finned Trevally) · C. rhonchus (Ten-Finned Horse Mackerel) · C. ruber (Blue Striped Cavalla) · C. russelli (Russell's Mackerel Scad) · C. secundus (Cottonmouth Kingfish) · C. sem (African Jack) · C. senegallus (Senegal Jack) · C. sexfasciatus (Six Banded Trevally) · C. stellatus (Starry Trevally) · C. symmetricus (Pacific Jack Mackerel) · C. tille (Tille Trevally) · C. trachurus japonicus (Japanese Horse Mackerel) · C. trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean Horse Mackerel) · C. uii (Onion Kingfish) · C. uraspis (Bassett-Hulls Trevally) · C. vari (Duskyfin Crevalle) · C. vinctus (Cocinero (FB))
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Atlantic Reference Centre (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Canadian Museum of Nature - Fish Collection (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Fish Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity - Fish Collection (AfrOBIS)
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB: Paleobiology Database
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- National Chemical Laboratory: IndOBIS, Indian Ocean Node of OBIS
- OZCAM (Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums) Provider: Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- Royal Ontario Museum: Fish specimens
- Senckenberg: Collection Pisces
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNPE/Coleccion Nacional de Peces
- University of Kansas Biodiversity Research Center: Fish Collection
- University of Minnesota Bell Museum of Natural History: Fish specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3863105
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-22744
- Fishbase Species ID: 71
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13529401
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 168609
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AFCQZ02010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 105846
- Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez (1992). Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales ma ... [back]
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- Mean = 57.660 meters (189.173 feet), Standard Deviation = 254.700 based on 246 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]