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Hexanematichthys proops



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Family : Sea catfishes; Occurs mainly in brackish estuaries and lagoons . Found on shallow muddy bottoms [1]. Feeds on fish and shrimps. Two annual cycles of slower growth occur during the dry seasons (March and August to November). Life span is three to four years. Sexually mature at 1.5 to 2 years of age. Reproduction takes place from November to April. Consumed as food[2]. Marketed fresh. The skull is sold throughout the world as crucifix.

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Creole, French:

Machioran Blan

Common Names in Creoles and Pidgins, French:

Machioran Blan

Common Names in Danish:


Common Names in Djuka:

Gata Fisi

Common Names in Dutch:


Common Names in English:

Catfish, Christfish, Crucifex Catfish, Crucifix Catfish, Crucifix Sea Catfish, Crucifixfish, Gillbacker, Marine Catfish

Common Names in French:

Mâchoiron Crucifix

Common Names in Galibi:


Common Names in Malay:

Duri, Pulutan, Utek

Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:

前眼海鯰, 前眼鱨

Common Names in Palicur:


Common Names in Polish:

Sumik Krzyzowy

Common Names in Portuguese:

Bagre, Bagre Crucifixio, Bagre-Branco, Bagre-Crucifixo, Guri-Branco, Iritinga, Uritinga

Common Names in S. American Indian:

Kokwari, Kupira

Common Names in Spanish:

Bagre Piedrero

Common Names in Sranan:

Kokwari, Kupira


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Biome: Brackish water, saltwater . Demersal .


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Arius proops (Valenciennes • Bagrus proops Valenciennes • Sciadeichthys proops (Valenciennes


Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: Group expert : Ferraris Jr. C.J., Data last modified by FishBase 11-May-2001

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Hexanematichthys

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species and subspecies in this genus:

H. assimilis (Maya Sea Catfish) · H. bonillai (New Granada Sea Catfish) · H. couma (Couma Sea Catfish) · H. dowii (Brown Sea Catfish) · H. guatemalensis (Blue Sea Catfish) · H. kessleri (Sculptured Sea Catfish) · H. leptaspis (Triangular-Shield Catfish) · H. mastersi (Master's Catfish) · H. osculus (Chomba Sea Catfish) · H. parkeri (Gillbacker Sea Catfish) · H. passany (Marine Catfish) · H. platypogon (Cominate Sea Catfish) · H. proops (Catfish) · H. sagor (Sunda Sea-Catfish) · H. seemanni (Tete Sea Catfish) · H. couma (Pemecou Sea Catfish)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:



  1. Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez (1992). Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales ma ... [back]
  2. Le Bail, P.-Y, P. Keith and P. Planquette (2000). Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane (tome 2, fascicule II). Publications scientifiques du M.N.H.N, Paris, 307 p. [back]
Last Revised: 2015-01-30