Mammal. The stoat is an intelligent, versatile predator specialising in small mammals and birds. Fearless in attacking animals larger than itself, and adapted to surviving periodic shortages by storage of surplus kills. Mustela erminea has been used to exterminate pest rodents and rabbits on small islands with few alternative prey (King 1989), but only in certain conditions which are hard to meet. Belief that they could control rabbits was the reason for bringing them to New Zealand, but the islands were too large and alternative prey too abundant. Formerly an important source of white fur (ermine) harvested by trappers in Russia and Canada.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
ermine, Short-tailed weasel, Stoat, Weasel
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Species Mustela erminea
Brown on back, white on belly, tail with conspicuous black tip . Long, thin body with strong sexual dimorphism - in New Zeland the adult males average 320 g and females 200 g, they are much smaller elsewhere in the world. May be white or partially so in winter in colder areas. Swims and climbs well.
Lives anywhere it can find prey , but vulnerable to attack by raptors , so keeps under cover and prefers forest or patches of bush or hedgerows to open pasture. Habitat choices similar in native and introduced ranges .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
Ermine (Stoat) occupy a wide range
. They are often found
in successional or forest-edge habitats, in scrub
woodlands, hedgerows, and riverbanks that have
high densities of small mammals, especially Microtus and
Arvicola species (King, 1983). Pulliainen (1999) states
and mixed woodlands are preferred, but that many
other habitats are used including tundra
and the summits of fells
and mountains. Dense forests
and deserts are avoided (King, 1983).
Specifically to Mongolia, they inhabit taiga, forest-steppe and rocky
parts of the semi-desert. This species is a specialist
small mammals, but will occasionally feed
on fruit, earthworms, insects,
, and birds (King, 1983). Its local distribution is typically
related to that of small rodents and lagomorphs (King, 1983; Pulliainen,
1999). This species is nocturnal
but are often seen in daylight hours.
Estimates for home range
size range from 4 to 200 hectares
most often falling between 10 to 40 hectares (King, 1983).
Its local distribution is typically related to that of small rodents and lagomorphs (King, 1983). They tend to avoid dense forest and deserts, and are often found in successional or forest-edge habitats, in scrub, alpine meadows, marshes, riparian woodlands, hedgerows, and riverbanks that have high densities of small mammals, especially Microtus and Arvicola (King, 1983). Estimates for home range size range from 4 to 200 hectares for males, most often falling between 10 to 40 hectares (King, 1983)..
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 1.2 Forest - Subarctic
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.1 Shrubland - Subarctic
- 3.3 Shrubland - Boreal
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 4 Grassland
- 4.1 Grassland - Tundra
- 4.2 Grassland - Subarctic
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.3 Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs , mountain peaks)
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 14.3 Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations [more info]
, with 9-10 month compulsory delay in implantation which
into two, 2-week periods in different calendar
years. Ovulation induced by coitus; ovulation rate averages 8-10
every year, range
1-18, but litter size
by progressive intra-uterine
when food scarce, to zero in extreme conditions (King et
al 2003). Stoats of both sexes must survive to about 14 months
old to leave surviving offspring.
Females have extreme juvenile precocity, mated as nestlings but do not produce the young until following season . Males mature at 10-11 months. Limited to a single litter a year, but in optimal conditions it can be large (10-13 young born). Average life span
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Bowdich, 1821
- Kretzoi, 1943
- Flower, 1869
- Parvorder: Mustelida () - Tedford, 1976
- Infraorder: Arctoidea () - Flower, 1869
- Suborder: Caniformia () - Kretzoi, 1943
- Order: Carnivora () - Bowdich, 1821
- Grandorder: Ferae () - (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Aug-2007
Members of the genus Mustela
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 41 species and subspecies in this genus:
M. africana (Tropical Weasel) · M. altaica (Altai Weasel) · M. erminea (Short-Tailed Weasel) · M. erminea anguinae (Vancouver Island Ermine) · M. erminea celenda (Prince of Wales Island Ermine) · M. erminea erminea (Short-Tailed Weasel) · M. erminea haidarum (Queen Charlotte Islands Ermine) · M. erminea kadiacensis (Ermine) · M. erminea seclusa (Ermine) · M. eversmanii (Steppe Polecat) · M. eversmannii (Steppe Polecat) · M. felipei (Colombian Weasel) · M. felipeide la (Colombian Weasel) · M. frenata (Long-Tailed Weasel) · M. frenata altifrontalis (Washington Long-Tailed Weasel) · M. frenata frenata (Long-Tailed Weasel) · M. frenata latriostra (Long-Tailed Weasel) · M. frenata longicauda (Prairie Long-Tailed Weasel) · M. frenata olivacea (Southeastern Weasel) · M. frenata peninsulae (Long-Tailed Florida Weasel) · M. frenata primulina (Long-Tailed Weasel) · M. itatsi (Japanese Weasel) · M. kathiah (Yellow-Bellied Weasel) · M. kathiah kathiah (Yellow-Bellied Weasel) · M. lutreola (Mink) · M. lutreolina (Indonesian Mountain Weasel) · M. macrodon (And Polecats) · M. nigripes (Black-Footed Ferret) · M. nivalis (Least Weasel) · M. nudipes (Malay Weasel) · M. putorius (European Ferret) · M. putorius furo (Domestic Ferret) · M. sibirica (Siberian Weasel) · M. sibirica sibirica (Siberian Weasel) · M. strigidorsa (Stripe-Backed Weasel) · M. subpalmata (Egyptian Weasel) · M. vison (American Mink) · M. vison halilimnetes (Gulf Salt Marsh Mink) · M. vison lutensis (Florida Mink) · M. vison macrodon (Sea Mink) · M. vulgaris (Black Spotted Smooth Hound)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science, Mammal specimens
- Mammal Research Institute PAS, Mammal Collection
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Michigan State University Museum, Vertebrate specimens
- Museum of Texas Tech University
- , Mammal specimens
- Royal Ontario Museum, Mammal specimens
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Mammal Collection
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Biological Records Centre - Mammal records from Britain from the Atlas of Mammals
- , with some subsequent records
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 105658
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-727203
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2136937
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 180555
- IUCN ID: 224726
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AMAJF02010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 14924
- Mean = 210.200 meters (689.633 feet), Standard Deviation = 349.250 based on 9,463 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Reid, F. & Helgen, K. 2008. Mustela erminea. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 February 2012. [back]