A selection of var. yakushimanum that is receiving increased attention and cultivation. It is a cold-hardy, compact plant with tight leaves that resemble a rhododendron. The white flowers are profuse and appear later in Spring than the species.
- This single-brooded species is mostly found in and near the mountains where it varies from common to uncommon, depending on location. West Virginia Whites fly mainly in April and May and are usually seen along roads through rich forests .
- The Cabbage White is perhaps our most familiar butterfly after the Monarch. What is not generally known, however, is this medium-sized ubiquitous butterfly is an invasive species , accidentally introduced into North America in Quebec in 1860. There is no other butterfly that is so successful over such a large variety of landscapes and climates. Farmers and gardeners consider the Cabbage White a pest species; its caterpillars have a ravenous appetite for radishes, cabbage, and nasturtiums.
- The Cabbage White is perhaps our most familiar butterfly after the Monarch. What is not generally known, however, is this medium-sized ubiquitous butterfly is an invasive species, accidentally introduced into North America in Quebec in 1860. There is no other butterfly that is so successful over such a large variety of landscapes and climates. Farmers and gardeners consider the Cabbage White a pest species; its caterpillars have a ravenous appetite for radishes, cabbage, and nasturtiums.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Andromeda, Cabbage White, Cavatine Andromeda, Flaming Silver Andromeda, Imported Cabbageworm, Japanese Pieris, Japanese-Andromeda, Large White, Lily of the Valley Shrub, Lily-Of-The-Valley-Bush, Margined White, Mustard White, Small Cabbage White, Small White, West Virginia White
Common Names in Japanese:
'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
ID Features: Foliage is whorls at the shoot tip. Leaves evergreen with shallow teeth on the margin. P. floribunda. has cilate (hair-like) margins and Kalmia latifolia has entire margins.. Pendulous clusters or white urn-shaped flowers in late winter through. early spring. New growth reddish. Persistent brown capsules. Lacebug injury often visible.
Habit: Evergreen . • Growth Form: Multiple Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Profuse small, white, urn-shaped flowers; 0.25" long. Held in pendulous, 3" to 6" long clusters . Blooms early, in March and April. Flowers last 2 to 3 weeks. Flowers are weakly fragrant. Naked flower buds are present through the fall and winter. Winter flower buds are reddish. • Bloom Period: January, February, March, December. • Flower Color: near white, white • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: None • Fruit: Small, rounded , dehiscent capsules that persist. Not ornamentally attractive and considered by some to be undesirable. • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Dark Green • Summer foliage: Leaves are glossy green. Moderate-sized, 1.5" to 3.5" long and 0.5" to 0.75" wide. Leaves are widest at or above the middle . Leaf margins with shallow serrations . Foliage clustered in "whorls" at the tips . New stems are green and glabrous . Emerging foliage is an attractive reddish color. • Fall foliage: Evergreen , no fall color develops. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: Yes
, whitish, with no yellowish tint underneath.
Underside of hindwings
with blurry brown or pale
Upperside of wings white; forewing with black tip . Two submarginal black spots in female, one in male. Underside of hindwing and forewing apex evenly yellow-green or gray-green. Spring and fall short-day form is smaller, less yellow, with reduced black areas.
Summer form is pure white above and below; spring form has black-tipped upper forewing. Underside of hindwing and apex of forewing have veins edged with yellow-green or gray-green.
Like a very large version of the Cabbage White.
: 1 3/4 - 2 1/8 inches (4.5 - 5.3 cm).
Wing span: 1 3/4 - 2 1/4 inches (4.5 - 5.8 cm).
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 2 1/4 inches (3.8 - 5.7 cm).
Wing span: 2 1/2 - 2 3/4 inches (6-7 cm). Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow. • Mature Height (feet): 12.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 8 • Size: 4-6' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Foundation plant. Shrub borders . Incorporated with other evergreens . Useful in shaded spots. Very deer resistant. Early bloom time is an asset. • Liabilities: Lacebug can cause significant stippling on foliage , making it yellow and. unsightly, especially in hot dry sites. Phytophthora root rot.
Moist deciduous woodlands or mixed woods
Almost any type of open space including weedy areas, gardens, roadsides, cities, and suburbs.
Open forests and fields , deciduous woods, bogs , streamsides.
Forests, meadows, deciduous woods, streamsides.
Zone 5 and warmer, protected parts of zone 4, although some cold injury expected.
Almost any type of open space especially vegetable gardens, roadsides, cities, and suburbs.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 5,031 meters (0 to 16,506 feet).
Caterpillar hosts: Toothworts (Dentaria diphylla and D. laciniata)
in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family
food: Flower nectar
from toothworts, spring
beauty, violets, and other plants
Caterpillar hosts: Many plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family and occasionally some in the caper family (Capparidaceae). Adult food: Flower nectar from a very wide array of plants including mustards, dandelion, red clover, asters, and mints.
Caterpillar hosts: Various plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family. Adult food: Flower nectar from mustard family and other plants.
Caterpillar hosts: Various native plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family. Adult food: Nectar from flowers of the mustard family and other plants.
Caterpillar hosts: Cabbages, Brussel-sprouts, nasturtium. Adult food: Flower nectar from a very wide array of plants including thistles and butterfly bush .
Males patrol slowly to locate females. Eggs
are laid singly on undersides
of host plant leaves. Chrysalids hibernate on stems or plant litter
under the plant.
Males patrol for females. Females lay single eggs on undersides of host leaves. Chrysalids hibernate.
Males patrol during the day for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly on underside of host plant leaves. Caterpillars feed on leaves. Chrysalis hibernates.
Males patrol for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly on underside of host plant leaves on which the caterpillars feed. Chrysalis hibernates.
Females lay masses of yellow eggs on undersides of host leaves. Caterpillar is gray-green green with black smudges ands short white hairs . Chrysalis is gray green with small yellow and black marks .
Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: No • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 6.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 2 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 200 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
Flight: In the North, one flight in May; in the South, one flight
Flight: Two to three in northern part of range ; 7-8 in the south. It is usually the first butterfly to emerge in spring .
Flight: Two flights from April-September in mid-continent; one flight from June-July in the north.
Flight: Two flights from February-September in the West.
Flight: Two to three flights in Europe from April to October.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
West Virginia Whites lack the black spots in the wings that are found in the more common and widespread Cabbage White.
Members of the genus Pieridopsis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
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- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Bulletin of the Hill Museum: a magazine of lepidopterology; Edited by J. J. Joicey. Issued at the Hill Museum, Wormley, Witley. London: John Bale, sons & Danielsson, 1921- url p. 330, p. 641, p. 648.
- Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, 1916- url p. 76, p. 80.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-2006. Systema Naturae 2000. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Accessed October 4, 2006.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 26, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
- Marlin, Bruce. CirrusImage.com.
- Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Mountain Prairie Information Node. March 26, 2007.
- Pippen, Jeffrey S. Jeff's Nature Page. Accessed December 3, 2007.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The Global Lepidoptera Names Index2, 12.2, 2005.
- The Universal Virus database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses 2005.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 24, 2008)
- Van Swaay, C.A.M. & Warren, M.S. 2000. Pieris wollastoni. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2006.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3386894
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-144208.0
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 188541
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEPA2020 IILEPA2030 IILEPA2060 IILEPA2050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PIJA3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1551410