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Plantae

(Kingdom)

Overview

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The plant kingdom, in most modern classifications comprising the algae, bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), seedless vascular plants (ferns, club mosses, horsetails and the seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms). In older classifications, the fungi and even bacteria are also included, but these groups are now usually paced in separate kingdoms. The algae are sometimes included in the Protista.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Kingdom Plantae is a member of the Domain Eukaryota. Here is the complete "parentage" of Plantae:

The Kingdom Plantae is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Acanthaceae

The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. [more]

Aceraceae

Aceraceae is a family of flowering plants also called the Maple Family. It contains two to four genera, depending upon the circumscription, of some 120 species of trees and shrubs. A common characteristic is that the leaves are opposite, and the fruit a schizocarp. [more]

Achariaceae

[more]

Achatocarpaceae

Achatocarpaceae is a family of woody flowering plants. The family consists of two genera and ten species, and has been recognized by most taxonomists. It is found from the southwestern United States south to tropical and subtropical South America. [more]

Aclistocharaceae

[more]

Acoraceae

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Acrobolbaceae

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Acrochaetiaceae

[more]

Acrosiphoniaceae

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Acrosymphytaceae

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Acrotylaceae

[more]

Actinidiaceae

Actinidiaceae, or the Chinese Gooseberry family, is a small family of plants. It includes three genera and about 360 species. It is a member of the order Ericales. [more]

Actinochloridaceae

Actinochloridaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Actinodiscaceae

[more]

Adelanthaceae

[more]

Adiantaceae

Adiantaceae (as construed here, sensu strictu, not a synonym of Pteridaceae) is a family of ferns in the order Pteridales. This includes the family formerly known as the "Vittariaceae." Recent genetic analyses based on chloroplast genes demonstrate that the vittarioid ferns cladistically nest within the genus Adiantum, making that genus paraphyletic. [more]

Adoxaceae

The Adoxaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Dipsacales, as now constituted comprising four genera and about 150-200 species. It is characterised by opposite toothed leaves, small five- or, more rarely, four-petalled flowers in cymose inflorescences, and the fruit being a drupe. They are thus similar to many Cornaceae. [more]

Aextoxicaceae

Aextoxicon punctatum, the sole species of genus Aextoxicon and family Aextoxicaceae, is a tree native to southern Chile and Argentina. [more]

Agavaceae

Agavoideae is a subfamily of monocot flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Agavaceae. The group includes many well-known desert and dry zone types such as the agave, yucca, and Joshua tree. There are about 640 species in around 23 genera, widespread in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. [more]

Agdestidaceae

[more]

Ahnfeltiaceae

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Aitchinsoniellaceae

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Aizoaceae

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Akaniaceae

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Alangiaceae

Alangiaceae is a small family of small dicotyledon trees, shrubs or lianas, closely related to the Cornaceae (Dogwood family). [more]

Alismaceae

[more]

Alismataceae

The water-plantains (Alismataceae) are a family of flowering plants, comprising 11 genera and between 85-95 species. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with the greatest number of species in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most of the species are herbaceous aquatic plants growing in marshes and ponds. [more]

Alliaceae

Allioideae is the botanical name of a monocot subfamily of flowering plants in the family Amaryllidaceae, order Asparagales. It was formerly treated as a separate family, Alliaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Allium. [more]

Allisoniaceae

Allisonia cockaynei is the only species of liverwort in the genus Allisonia and family Allisoniaceae. It is endemic to New Zealand. [more]

Aloaceae

Asphodeloideae is a subfamily of the monocot family Xanthorrhoeaceae in the order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Asphodelaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Asphodelus. Members of group are native to Africa, central and western Europe, the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and Australia, with one genus (Bulbinella) having some of its species in New Zealand. The greatest diversity occurs in South Africa. [more]

Aloeaceae

Asphodeloideae is a subfamily of the monocot family Xanthorrhoeaceae in the order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Asphodelaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Asphodelus. Members of group are native to Africa, central and western Europe, the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and Australia, with one genus (Bulbinella) having some of its species in New Zealand. The greatest diversity occurs in South Africa. [more]

Alseuosmiaceae

[more]

Alstroemeriaceae

The Alstroemeriaceae is a family of flowering plants, with 200 species in three or four genera, native to the Americas, from Central America to southern South America. [more]

Altingiaceae

Altingiaceae, a small family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales, are wind-pollinated trees that produce hard, woody fruits containing numerous seeds. The fruits have been studied in considerable detail. They naturally occur in Central America, Mexico, eastern North America, the eastern Mediterranean, China, and tropical Asia. They are often cultivated as ornamentals and many produce valuable wood. [more]

Alzateaceae

Alzatea verticillata is a small flowering tree, native to the Neotropics. It inhabits moist submontane forests from Costa Rica and Panama in Central America south to Peru and Bolivia in tropical South America. It is the sole species of genus Alzatea and family Alzateaceae. [more]

Amaranthaceae

The Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family, represent the most species-rich lineage within the flowering plant order of Caryophyllales. Including the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae), the extended family contains approximately 180 genera and 2,500 species. [more]

Amaryllidaceae

Amaryllidaceae are a family of herbaceous, perennial and bulbous flowering plants included in the monocot order Asparagales. The family takes its name from the genus Amaryllis, hence the common name of the Amaryllis family. [more]

Amblystegiaceae

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Amborellaceae

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Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae (the cashew or sumac family) are a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes and in some cases producing urushiol, an irritant. Anacardiaceae include numerous genera with several of economic importance. Notable plants in this family include cashew (in the type genus Anacardium), mango, poison ivy, sumac, smoke tree, and marula. The genus Pistacia (which includes the pistachio and mastic tree) usually is now included, but has sometimes been placed in its own family, Pistaciaceae. [more]

Anadyomenaceae

In taxonomy, the Anadyomenaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Cladophorales. [more]

Anarthriaceae

Anarthriaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has rarely been recognized by taxonomists. [more]

Ancistrocladaceae

Ancistrocladaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been widely recognized by taxonomists. [more]

Andreaceae

[more]

Andreaeaceae

Andreaeaceae is a family of mosses which includes two genera, Andreaea, containing about 100 species, and the genus . The Andreaeaceae prefer rocky habitats ranging from tropical to arctic climates, on which they form tufted colonies, typically with reddish to blackish shoots. The capsules lack the peristome mechanism and dehisce longitudinally to release the spores, resulting in a paper-lantern appearance. [more]

Andreaeobryaceae

Andreaeobryum is a genus of moss with a single species Andreaeobryum macrosporum, endemic to Alaska and western Canada. The genus is placed as a separate family, order and class among the mosses. [more]

Anemiaceae

Species of the genus Anemia are sometimes called flowering ferns, but this term is more commonly applied to ferns of the genus Osmunda. It is sometimes classified in family Schizaeaceae. Fronds are dimorphic; in fertile fronds, the two lowermost pinnae are highly modified to bear the sporangia. [more]

Aneuraceae

Aneuraceae (sometimes Riccardiaceae) is a family of thallose liverworts in the order Metzgeriales. Most species are very small with narrow, branching thalli. [more]

Anisophylleaceae

Anisophylleaceae is a small family with four genera in the order Cucurbitales, according to the APG II. However it is more isolated from the other suprafamilal clades in this order, while it shows some similarities in flower morphology with the genus Ceratopetalum (family Cunoniaceae, order Oxalidales). Several wood features of this family, are more primitive than those of the other families in the order Cucurbitales. [more]

Annonaceae

Annonaceae, also called the custard apple family is a family of flowering plants consisting of trees, shrubs or rarely lianas. With about 2300 to 2500 species and more than 130 genera, it is the largest family in Magnoliales. Only five genera, Annona, Rollinia, Uvaria, Melodorum and Asimina produce edible fruits. Its type genus is Annona. The family is concentrated in the tropics, with few species found in temperate regions. About 900 species are Neotropical, 450 are Afrotropical, and the other species Indomalayan. [more]

Antheliaceae

Antheliaceae is a liverwort family in the order Jungermanniales. [more]

Anthericaceae

Agavoideae is a subfamily of monocot flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Agavaceae. The group includes many well-known desert and dry zone types such as the agave, yucca, and Joshua tree. There are about 640 species in around 23 genera, widespread in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. [more]

Anthocerotaceae

The Anthocerotaceae is the only family of hornworts in the order Anthocerotales. [more]

Antoniaceae

[more]

Aphanochaetaceae

In taxonomy, the Aphanochaetaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chaetophorales. [more]

Aphloiaceae

Aphloiaceae Takht. 1985, is a monogeneric family of flowering plants. It contains only one species Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn., a species of evergreen shrubs or small trees occurring in East Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands and the Seychelles. [more]

Aphyllanthaceae

Aphyllanthoideae is a monocot subfamily of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, order Asparagales. It was formerly treated as a separate family, Aphyllanthaceae. The subfamily (and family) names are derived from the generic name of the type genus, Aphyllanthes, endemic to the western Mediterranean region. [more]

Apiaceae

The Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae), commonly known as carrot or parsley family, is a group of mostly aromatic plants with hollow stems. The family is large, with more than 3,700 species spread across 434 genera, it is the sixteenth largest family of flowering plants. Included in this family are the well known plants: angelica, anise, arracacha, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, centella asiatica, chervil, cicely, coriander/cilantro, cumin, dill, fennel, hemlock, lovage, Queen Anne's Lace, parsley, parsnip, sea holly, and the now extinct silphium. [more]

Apocynaceae

The Apocynaceae or dogbane family is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, and lianas. [more]

Apodanthaceae

The family Apodanthaceae comprises 22 to 30 species of endoparasitic herbs. They live in branches or roots of their host (as filaments similar to a fungal mycelium), emerging only to flower. The only leaves present are several bracts at the base of each flower. The plants do not carry out any photosynthesis (that is, they are holoparasitic). These are distributed into three genera: Pilostyles, , and Berlinianche. Attempts to determine the relationships of Apodanthaceae have produced only uncertain results and they remain as enigmatic as ever. [more]

Aponogetonaceae

The Aponogetonaceae (Cape-pondweed family or Aponogeton family) are a family of flowering plants in the order Alismatales. [more]

Aptandraceae

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Aquifoliaceae

Ilex () is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen and deciduous trees, shrubs, and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide. [more]

Araceae

Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. The spadix is usually accompanied by, and sometimes partially enclosed in, a spathe or leaf-like bract. Also known as the Arum family, members are often colloquially known as aroid. This family of 107 genera and over 3700 species is most diverse in the New World tropics, although also distributed in the Old World tropics and north temperate regions. [more]

Araliaceae

Araliaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the Aralia family (after its type genus Aralia) or Ivy family. The family includes 254 species of trees, shrubs, lianas and perennial herbaceous plants into 2 subfamilies. Species usually bear pinnately or palmately compound leaves, and usually have small flowers produced in large panicles. [more]

Aralidiaceae

Aralidium is a genus in the plant family Torricelliaceae. It includes the single species Aralidium pinnatifidum, a small tree or shrub distributed in southeastern Asia, Malaysia, and Indonesia. [more]

Araucariaceae

Araucariaceae, commonly referred to as araucarians, is a very ancient family of coniferous trees. It achieved its maximum diversity in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, when it was distributed almost worldwide. At the end of the Cretaceous, when dinosaurs became extinct, so too did the Araucariaceae in the northern hemisphere. [more]

Arberiaceae

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Archaeocalamitaceae

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Archaeopteridaceae

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Archaeosigillariaceae

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Archidiaceae

Archidium is a genus of about 35 species of moss; it is the only genus in the family Archidiaceae and order Archidiales. [more]

Arecaceae

Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is considered taxonomically invalid, or by the common name palm tree), are a family of flowering plants, the only family in the monocot order Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, many palms are exceptions to this statement, and palms in fact exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics. As well as being morphologically diverse, palms also inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. [more]

Areschougiaceae

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Argophyllaceae

The Argophyllaceae is a family of shrubs or small trees belonging to the order Asterales. The family includes two genera Argophyllum and Corokia. Members of the family are native to eastern Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, and Rapa Iti. [more]

Aristolochiaceae

The Aristolochiaceae, or the Birthwort family, are a family of flowering plants with 7 genera and about 400 species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L. [more]

Arnelliaceae

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Asclepiadaceae

According to APG II, the Asclepiadaceae is a former plant family now treated as a subfamily (subfamily Asclepiadoideae) in the Apocynaceae (Bruyns 2000). Botanist Pete Raids has been credited with the majority of work in this field. [more]

Asparagaceae

Asparagaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots. [more]

Asphodelaceae

Asphodeloideae is a subfamily of the monocot family Xanthorrhoeaceae in the order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Asphodelaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Asphodelus. Members of group are native to Africa, central and western Europe, the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and Australia, with one genus (Bulbinella) having some of its species in New Zealand. The greatest diversity occurs in South Africa. [more]

Aspidiaceae

Dryopteridaceae, is a family of leptosporangiate ferns in the order Polypodiales. They are known colloquially as the wood ferns. They comprise about 1700 species and have a cosmopolitan distribution. They may be terrestrial, epipetric, hemiepiphytic, or epiphytic. Many are cultivated as ornamental plants. The largest genera are Elaphoglossum (600), Polystichum (260), Dryopteris (225), and Ctenitis (150). These four genera contain about 70% of the species. Dryopteridaceae diverged from the other families in eupolypods I about 100 Mya (million years ago). [more]

Aspleniaceae

The Aspleniaceae (spleenworts) is a family of ferns, included in the order Polypodiales or in some classifications as the only family in the order Aspleniales. [more]

Asteliaceae

Asteliaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots. [more]

Asteraceae

The Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family), is an exceedingly large and widespread family of vascular plants. The group has more than 22,750 currently accepted species, spread across 1620 genera and 12 subfamilies. Along with the Orchidaceae, this makes it one of the two largest flowering plant families in the world. However, selecting which of the two families is larger has yet to be been done conclusively, owing to the uncertainty around exactly how many species are in each group. The largest composite genera are Senecio (1,000 species), Vernonia (1,000 species), Centaurea (700 species), Cousinia (600 species), Helichrysum (550 species), and Artemesia (550 species). [more]

Asteranthaceae

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Astermonadaceae

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Asteropeiaceae

Asteropeiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by very few taxonomists. [more]

Asterothecaceae

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Athyriaceae

Athyriaceae is a family of terrestrial ferns, with a cosmopolitan distribution. It has, in the past, included Cystopteris and Gymnocarpium, but those two genera are now recognized as representing a two-member clade that is a basal offshoot of the clade that includes this family, plus Woodsia, the Onocleaceae, Blechnaceae, Aspleniaceae, and Thelypteridaceae. Inversely, this family has by some been subsumed in the family Woodsiaceae, but a Woodsiaceae defined in this way may be paraphyletic if it omits the Onocleaceae and Blechnaceae (as of 2006, the evidence was not clear). [more]

Aucubaceae

Trees or shrubs, dioecious; branches opposite, cylindrical. Leaves opposite, estipulate, petiolate, simple, pinnately veined; leaf blade abaxially light green, adaxially deep green and shiny, dark brown when dry, some species variegated with yellow or white markings, thickly leathery to papery, pubescent or glabrous, margin serrate or dentate, rarely entire. Inflorescences terminal, paniculate or racemose-paniculate. Flowers 4-merous, unisexual, actinomorphic, subtended by 1 or 2 bracteoles. Stamens 4, alternate petals. Ovary inferior, carpel 1, locule 1; ovule 1, pendulous; style short, thick; stigma capitate, straight or curving, slightly 2 4-lobed. Fruit drupes, fleshy, red when mature, black when dry, crowned with persistent calyx teeth, style, and stigma.[1] [more]

Aulacomniaceae

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Austrobaileyaceae

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Avetraceae

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Avicenniaceae

Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by aerial roots. It is commonly known as api api which in the Malay language means "fire fire", a reference to the fact that fireflies often congregate on these trees. Species of Avicennia occur worldwide south of the Tropic of Cancer. [more]

Aytoniaceae

Aytoniaceae is a family of liverworts in order Marchantiales. [more]

Azollaceae

Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like conventional ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses. [more]

Balanitaceae

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Balanopaceae

Balanops is a genus of flowering plants. The nine species are trees or shrubs, found in New Caledonia, Fiji and northern Queensland. [more]

Balanophoraceae

Balanophoraceae (from the inflorescence which appears to be covered by barnacles) is a subtropical to tropical family of obligate parasitic flowering plants, notable for their unusual development and obscure affinities. The family consist of 17 genera and approximately 50 species. The plants are normally found in moist inland forests growing on tree roots and have an aboveground inflorescence with the overall appearance of a fungus, composed of numerous minute flowers. The inflorescences develop inside the tuberous underground part of the plant, before rupturing it and surfacing. The plants are monoecious, or dioecious, and the fruits are indehiscent drupes or nuts. The underground portion, which attaches itself to the host, looks like a tuber, and is not a proper root system. The plants contain no chlorophyll. Balanophora means bearing an acorn (shape of the femal inflorescence). [more]

Balantiopsaceae

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Balantiopsidaceae

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Balbianiaceae

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Balliaceae

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Balsaminaceae

Balsaminaceae (commonly known as the balsam family) are a family of dicotyledonous plants, comprising two genera and 850+ species, all but one of which belong to the genus Impatiens. The flowering plants may be annual or perennial and are found throughout temperate and tropical regions, including North America, Asia, Europe and Africa. [more]

Bangiaceae

[more]

Barbeuiaceae

Barbeuia madagascariensis is a liana found only on the island of Madagascar. [more]

Barbeyaceae

Barbeya oleoides is the only species of its family (Barbeyaceae). It is a small tree native to the mountains of Somalia, Ethiopia, and the Arabian Peninsula. It can be found locally abundant in the transition zone between the dry, evergreen, Afromontane forests and lower-elevation evergreen bushlands. [more]

Barclayaceae

Barclaya is a genus of 3 - 4 species of flowering plants usually included in the family Nymphaeaceae but sometimes given their own family status as Barclayaceae on the basis of an extended perianth tube (combined sepals and petals) arising from the top of the ovary and by stamens that are joined basally. Barclaya are aquatic plants native to tropical Asia. The genus was named in honour of the English gardener and plant collector G. W. Barclay. [more]

Barinophytaceae

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Barringtoniaceae

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Bartramiaceae

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Basellaceae

Basellaceae is a family of flowering plants, in the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. The family comprises some two dozen species of herbaceous plants, some with climbing habits, in four genera: [more]

Bataceae

Batis (Turtleweed, Saltwort, Beachwort, or Pickleweed) is a genus of two species of flowering plants, the only genus in the family Bataceae. They are halophytic (salt tolerant) plants, native to the coastal salt marshes of warm temperate and tropical America (B. maritima) and tropical Australasia (B. argillicola). [more]

Batrachospermaceae

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Baxteriaceae

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Begoniaceae

Begoniaceae is a family of flowering plants with about 1400 species occurring in the subtropics and tropics of both the New World and Old World. All but one of the species are in the genus Begonia. The only other genus in the family, Hillebrandia, is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and has a single species. Phylogenetic work supports Hillebrandia as the sister taxon to the rest of the family. The genus Symbegonia has recently been reduced to a section of Begonia as recent molecular phylogenies have shown it to be derived from within that genus. [more]

Bembiciaceae

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Berberidaceae

Berberidaceae are a family of 15 genera flowering plants commonly called the barberry family. This family is in the order Ranunculales. The family contains about 570 species, of which the majority (450) are in Berberis. The species include trees, shrubs and perennial herbaceous plants. [more]

Berberidopsidaceae

Berberidopsidaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by only a few taxonomists: the plants involved have often been treated as belonging to family Flacourtiaceae. [more]

Betulaceae

Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams and hop-hornbeams, numbering about 130 species. They are mostly natives of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with a few species reaching the Southern Hemisphere in the Andes in South America. [more]

Biddulphiineae

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Biebersteiniaceae

Biebersteinia is a genus containing four species of herbs in the flowering plant order Sapindales. They occur in Central Asia and some nearby areas. [more]

Bignoniaceae

The Bignoniaceae, or Trumpet Creeper Family, is a family of flowering plants comprising about 650-750 species in 116-120 genera. Members of the family are mostly trees and lianas ( and Macfadyena), shrubs and more rarely herbaceous plants. As climber plants, they are twine climbers or tendril climbers, and rarely root climbers. Most lianas are found in tribe Bignonieae, that alone contains nearly half the number of species of the family. The family and its genus Bignonia was named after Jean-Paul Bignon by his prot?g? Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in 1694. [more]

Bixaceae

Bixaceae, or the achiote family, is a family of dicotyledonous plants. Under the Cronquist system, it was traditionally placed in the order Violales. However, newer arrangements move it, with some other families previously in the Violales families, into the Malvales. [more]

Blandfordiaceae

Blandfordia is a genus of flowering plants, placed in the family Blandfordiaceae of the order Asparagales of the monocots. The genus is native to eastern Australia. Plants in this genus are commonly referred to as Christmas Bells due to the shape of their flowers and the timing of their flowering season in Australia. Blandfordia was named by English botanist James Edward Smith in 1804 in honour of George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough, the Marquis of Blandford. [more]

Blasiaceae

Blasiaceae is a family of liverworts with only two species: Blasia pusilla (a circumboreal species) and Cavicularia densa (found only in Japan). The family has traditionally been classified among the Metzgeriales, but molecular cladistics suggests a placement at the base of the Marchantiopsida. [more]

Blechnaceae

Blechnaceae is a family of nine genera and between 240-260 species of ferns, with a cosmopolitan distribution. [more]

Blinksiaceae

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Boldiaceae

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Bombacaceae

Bombacaceae is a family of flowering plants or Angiospermae included within Malvales order. As is true for any botanical name, circumscription and status of the taxon has varied with taxonomic point of view. The family name is based on the genus Bombax. [more]

Bonnemaisoniaceae

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Bonnetiaceae

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Boodleaceae

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Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae, the Borage or Forget-me-not family, include a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, totaling about 2,000 species in 146 genera found worldwide. A number of familiar plants belong to this family. [more]

Borodinellaceae

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Bothrodendraceae

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Botryococcaceae

In taxonomy, the Botryococcaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Trebouxiophyceae. [more]

Bowmanitaceae

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Brachytheciaceae

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Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae, a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants (Angiosperms), are informally known as the mustards, mustard flowers, the crucifers or the cabbage family. [more]

Bretschneideraceae

Trees. Myrosin cells present in bark of branches and in inflorescence, producing glucosinolates. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; leaflets petiolulate, opposite or lower ones alternate, entire; veins pinnate; stipules absent. Racemes terminal, erect. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Calyx broadly campanulate, 5-lobed. Petals 5, free, imbricate, unequal, clawed, adnate from middle to upper part of calyx tube. Stamens 8, attached to thin, annular nectary disc at base of petals, shorter than petals; filaments filiform, hairy, especially in basal 1/2. Pistil 1; ovary superior, sessile, 3-5-loculed; placentation axile; ovules 2 per locule, pendulous; style longer than stamens; stigma capitate, minute. Fruit a capsule; valves 3-5, thick walled, dehiscent. Seeds oblong; endosperm absent.[2] [more]

Brexiaceae

[more]

Bromeliaceae

Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) is a family of monocot flowering plants of around 3,170 species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana. It is one of the basal families within the Poales and is unique because it is the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries. These inferior ovaries characterize the Bromelioideae, a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae. The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple (Ananas comosus). Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. However, the family is diverse enough to include the tank bromeliads, grey-leaved epiphytic Tillandsia species that gather water only from leaf structures called trichomes, and a large number of desert-dwelling succulents. [more]

Bruchiaceae

Bruchiaceae is a family of mosses within the order Dicranales. Genera within the family include: [more]

Brunelliaceae

Brunellia is a genus of trees in the family Brunelliaceae. It consists of 62 species which grow in the mountainous regions from southern Mexico to Bolivia. There are 10 species in Ecuador, all but one of which occur in the Andean woodlands. [more]

Bruniaceae

Bruniaceae is a family of shrubs native to the cape region of . They are mostly restricted to the Cape Province, but a small number of species occur in KwaZulu-Natal. [more]

Brunoniaceae

The blue pincushion (Brunonia australis), also known as Native Cornflower, is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows widely across Australia. It is found in woodlands, open forest and sand plains. In the Cronquist system's classification scheme it was the sole member of the monogenetic plant family Brunoniaceae before the APG II system moved it into Goodeniaceae. [more]

Bryaceae

Bryaceae is a family of mosses. [more]

Bryobartramiaceae

[more]

Bryopsidaceae

In taxonomy, the Bryopsidaceae are a family of algae, in the order Bryopsidales. [more]

Bryoxiphiaceae

Bryoxiphium is the only genus of moss in family Bryoxiphiaceae. It contains the following species: [more]

Buddlejaceae

Buddleja, often misspelled Buddleia () but commonly known as the Butterfly Bush, is a genus of flowering plants. The generic name bestowed by Linnaeus honours the Reverend Adam Buddle (1662?1715), a botanist and rector in Essex, England, but who could never have seen a plant of the genus. [more]

Burchardiaceae

[more]

Burmanniaceae

Burmanniaceae is a botanical name of a family of flowering plants, consisting of about a hundred species of herbaceous plants in roughly a dozen genera. Often they are quite remarkable plants, more often red than green, without much leaf area and not growing very big in any way. [more]

Burseraceae

Burseraceae is a moderate-sized family of 17-18 genera and about 540 species of flowering plants. The actual numbers differ according to the time period in which a given source is written describing this family. The Burseraceae is also known as the Torchwood family[], the frankincense and myrrh family, or simply the incense tree family. The family includes both trees and shrubs, and is native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. [more]

Butomaceae

Butomus is the sole genus in the monogeneric plant family Butomaceae, containing the single species Butomus umbellatus, also known as flowering rush or grass rush. [more]

Buxaceae

Buxaceae are a small family of four or five genera and about 90-120 species of flowering plants. They are shrubs and small trees, with a cosmopolitan distribution. A fifth genus sometimes accepted in the past (Notobuxus), has been shown by genetic studies to be included within Buxus (Balthazar et al., 2000). [more]

Buxbaumiaceae

Buxbaumia (Bug moss, Bug-on-a-stick, Humpbacked elves, or Elf-cap moss) is the botanical name for a genus of twelve species of moss (Bryophyta). It was named in 1801 by Johann Hedwig to commemorate Johann Christian Buxbaum, a German physician and botanist who discovered the moss in 1712 at the mouth of the Volga River. The moss is microscopic for most of its existence, and plants are noticeable only after they begin to produce their reproductive structures. The asymmetrical spore capsule has a distinctive shape and structure, some features of which appear to be transitional from those in primitive mosses to most modern mosses. [more]

Byblidaceae

Byblis () is a small genus of carnivorous plants, sometimes termed the rainbow plants for the attractive appearance of their mucilage-covered leaves in bright sunshine. Native to western Australia, it is the only genus in the family Byblidaceae. The first species in the genus was described by the English botanist Richard Anthony Salisbury in 1808. Seven species are now recognized (see below). [more]

Cabombaceae

Cabombaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. The family has been recognised as distinct by at least some taxonomists and by APG III (2009). The family consists of two genera of aquatic plants, (Brasenia and Cabomba), totalling half-a-dozen species. [more]

Cactaceae

A cactus is a member of the plant family Cactaceae, within the order Caryophyllales. The plural of cactus varies; the Latin cacti, the English cactuses and the uninflected plural cactus are all in use. The distinctive appearance of cacti is a result of adaptations to conserve water in dry and/or hot environments. In most species, the stem has evolved to become photosynthetic and succulent, while the leaves have evolved into spines. Many species are used for ornamental plants, and some are also grown for fodder, forage, fruits, cochineal, and other uses. [more]

Calamitaceae

Calamitaceae is an extinct family of plants related to the modern horsetails. Some members of this family attained tree-like stature during the Carboniferous Period (around 360 to 300 million years ago). The family takes its name from its principal genus Calamites. [more]

Calamopityaceae

[more]

Calamostachyaceae

[more]

Calectasiaceae

Dasypogonaceae is a botanical name of a family of flowering plants. Such a family has not been commonly recognized by taxonomists: the plants involved were usually included in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae. [more]

Callicostaceae

[more]

Callistophytaceae

The Callistophytaceae was a family of pteridosperms, extinct seed ferns, from the Carboniferous and Permian periods. They first appeared in late Middle Pennsylvanian (Moscovian; 306.5?311.7 Ma) times in the tropical coal forests of Euramerica, and became an important component of Late Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian-Gzhelian; 299.0?306.5 Ma) vegetation of clastic substrates and some peat substrates. The best known callistophyte was documented from Late Pennsylvanian coal ball petrifactions from North America. [more]

Callitrichaceae

Callitriche (Cal-l?-tri-che) is a genus of largely aquatic plants known as water-starworts. Previously, it was the only genus in the family Callitrichaceae. However, according to the APG II system this family is now included in the Plantaginaceae (plantain family). The family name Callitrichaceae retains its status as nomen conservandum (name to be retained). [more]

Calochortaceae

Calochortaceae is a family of flowering plants. It is recognised by only a few systems of plant taxonomy, including the Dahlgren system, which placed it in the order Liliales in superorder Lilianae in subclass Liliidae [=monocotyledons] of class Magnoliopsida [=angiosperms]. [more]

Calomniaceae

[more]

Calosiphonaceae

[more]

Calosiphoniaceae

[more]

Calycanthaceae

The Calycanthaceae (sweetshrub or spicebush family) is a small family of flowering plants included in the order Laurales. The family contains four genera and only 6-11 species, restricted to warm temperate and tropical regions: [more]

Calyceraceae

Calyceraceae is a plant family in the order Asterales. [more]

Calymperaceae

Plants small to medium-sized, mostly erect [prostrate and with ascending branches], in tufts, cushions, or gregarious, rarely single or in tufts of a few; dark green to yellowish brown stems. Stems simple or forked; central strand absent; rhizoids brown to red or dark purple, scanty to numerous, sometimes abundant and conspicuous; axillary hairs 2 to many per axil, proximal cells short and colored, or undifferentiated. Leaves often slightly to strongly dimorphic, mostly variously contorted when dry, straight and erect-ascending when moist, teniolae (intramarginal files of differentiated cells) present (in some Calymperes) or absent; proximal portion of leaves commonly sheathing, including usually conspicuous areas of smooth, enlarged, hyaline, internally and externally porose cells (cancellinae) ; distal portion of leaves oblong to ligulate, lanceolate, acuminate, or narrowly long-linear; margins of distal lamina mostly thickened and toothed, sometimes bordered entirely or in part with elongate hyaline cells; costa single, strong, percurrent to excurrent, in cross section showing a median row of guide cells with abaxial and adaxial bands of stereid cells (the ad- and abaxial bands of cells rarely thin-walled and parenchyma-like) ; medial cells of distal lamina mostly isodiametric, rarely transversely elongate, mostly variously papillose. Specialized asexual reproduction common by seriate-multicellular, fusiform-clavate to filiform gemmae, borne mostly adaxially on apices of often highly modified leaves. Sexual condition mostly dioicous, rarely monoicous; perigonia axillary, gemmiform, with highly reduced leaves; perichaetia terminal but quickly overtopped by innovations and then appearing lateral, leaves few, scarcely different from cauline leaves. Seta single, yellow to red, mostly elongate, smooth, erect. Capsule erect, mostly exserted, rarely immersed, yellowish to brown, mostly cylindric, smooth; stomata scanty, on neck, phaneropore; annulus differentiated in several rows of cells; operculum rostrate; peristome single, often vestigial or absent, teeth 16, variously papillose on external surface, mostly smooth on internal surface, with weak transverse bars. Calyptra cucullate and deciduous or rarely conic-mitrate, sometimes clasping the seta below the capsule and persistent and the spores then escaping through vertical fissures in the calyptra, naked, smooth or papillose, sometimes plicate. Spores spherical, mostly granular-papillose.[3] [more]

Calypogeiaceae

[more]

Calypogejaceae

[more]

Campanulaceae

The family Campanulaceae (also bellflower family), of the order Asterales, contains about 2000 species in 70 genera of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and rarely small trees, often with milky non-toxic sap. Among them are the familiar garden plants Campanula (bellflower), Lobelia, and Platycodon (balloonflower). [more]

Campynemataceae

[more]

Canellaceae

The Canellaceae are a family of flowering plants. The family has sixteen species in six genera. The species are highly aromatic evergreen plants, mostly trees and rarely shrubs, which produce essential oils. Families Cannelaceae and Winteraceae form order Canellales. [more]

Cannabaceae

[more]

Cannaceae

Canna (or Canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of nineteen species of flowering plants. The closest living relations to cannas are the other plant families of the order Zingiberales, that is the gingers, bananas, marantas, heliconias, strelitzias, etc. [more]

Capparaceae

Capparaceae (or Capparidaceae), commonly known as the Caper family, is a family of plants in order Brassicales. As currently circumscribed, it contains 33 genera and about 700 species. The largest genera are Capparis (about 150 species), Maerua (~100 species), Boscia (37 species) and Cadaba (30 species). [more]

Caprifoliaceae

The Caprifoliaceae or honeysuckle family is a clade consisting of about 800 dicotyledonous flowering plants, with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution; centres of diversity are found in eastern North America and eastern Asia, while they are absent in tropical and southern Africa. [more]

Capsosiphonaceae

[more]

Cardiolepidaceae

[more]

Cardiopteridaceae

[more]

Caricaceae

Caricaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Brassicales, native to tropical regions of Central and South America and Africa. They are short-lived evergreen pachycaul shrubs or small trees growing to 5-10 m tall. Many bear edible fruit. [more]

Carlemanniaceae

The Carlemanniaceae are a tropical East Asian and Southeast Asian family of subshrub to herbaceous perennial flowering plants with 2 genera. Older systems of plant taxonomy place the two genera, Carlemannia, and Silvianthus within the Caprifoliaceae or the Rubiaceae. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of 2003 places the group in the Lamiales, as a plant family more closely related to the Oleaceae than to the Caprifoliaceae. [more]

Carpodetaceae

[more]

Carrpaceae

[more]

Carteriaceae

[more]

Caryocaraceae

[more]

Caryophyllaceae

The Caryophyllaceae, commonly called the pink family or carnation family, is a family of flowering plants. It is included in the dicotyledon order Caryophyllales in the APG III system, alongside 33 other families, including Amaranthaceae, Cactaceae and Polygonaceae. It is a large family, with 86 genera and some 2,200 species. [more]

Casuarinaceae

Casuarinaceae is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of 3 or 4 genera and approximately 70 species of trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics (Indo-Malaysia), Australia, and the Pacific Islands. At one time, all of the species were placed in the genus Casuarina, but these were split in 1982 into the genera Allocasuarina, Casuarina, , and Gymnostoma. Somewhat controversial at the time, the monophyly of these genera was later supported in a 2003 molecular study of the family. In the Wettstein system, this family was the only one placed in the order Verticillatae. Likewise, in the Engler, Cronquist and Kubitzki systems, Casuarinaceae was the only family placed in the order Casuarinales. [more]

Catenellopsidaceae

[more]

Catoscopiaceae

[more]

Caudatocarpaceae

[more]

Caulacanthaceae

[more]

Caulerpaceae

In taxonomy, the Caulerpaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Caytoniaceae

[more]

Cecropiaceae

Urticaceae, or the nettle family, is a family of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica (nettles). Urticaceae include a number of well-known and useful plants, including the aforementioned nettles, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), mamaki (Pipturus albidus), and ajlai (). [more]

Celastraceae

The Celastraceae (or staff vine or bittersweet family; syn. Canotiaceae, Chingithamnaceae, Euonymaceae, Goupiaceae, Lophopyxidaceae, and Siphonodontaceae in Cronquist system), is a family of about 90-100 genera and 1,300 species of vines, shrubs and small trees, belonging to the order Celastrales. The great majority of the genera are tropical, with only Celastrus (the staff vines), Euonymus (the spindles) and Maytenus widespread in temperate climates. [more]

Centrolepidaceae

Centrolepidaceae is a botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists. [more]

Cephalotaceae

Cephalotus ( or /?k?f?'lo?t?s/; Greek: ?efa?? "head", and ???/?t?? "ear", to describe the head of the anthers) is a genus which contains one species, Cephalotus follicularis, a small carnivorous pitcher plant. The pit-fall traps of the modified leaves have inspired the common names for this plant, which include Albany Pitcher Plant, Western Australian Pitcher Plant, fly-catcher plant or mocassin plant. [more]

Cephalotaxaceae

The family Cephalotaxaceae is a small grouping of conifers, with three genera and about 20 species, closely allied to the Taxaceae, and included in that family by some botanists. They are restricted to east Asia, except for two species of Torreya found in the southwest and southeast of the USA; fossil evidence shows a much wider prehistorical northern hemisphere distribution. The differences between the two families are as follows: [more]

Cephaloziaceae

[more]

Cephaloziellaceae

[more]

Ceramiaceae

The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: /ËŒroÊŠdəˈfaɪtÉ™, roʊˈdÉ’fɨtÉ™/, from Greek: ῥόδον (rhodon) = rose + φυτόν (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5,000–6,000 species  of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Other references indicate 10,000 species.  Most of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and nori are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisine and are used to make other products like agar, carrageenans and other food additives.  [more]

Ceratophyllaceae

Ceratophyllum is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions. They are usually called hornworts, although this name is also used for unrelated plants of the division Anthocerotophyta. [more]

Cercidiphyllaceae

Cercidiphyllum is a genus containing two species of plants, both commonly called Katsura. They are the sole members of the monotypic family Cercidiphyllaceae. The genus is native to Japan and China. [more]

Chaetangiaceae

[more]

Chaetochloridaceae

[more]

Chaetocoleaceae

[more]

Chaetophoraceae

In taxonomy, the Chaetophoraceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chaetophorales. [more]

Chaetophyllopsaceae

[more]

Chaetosiphonaceae

In taxonomy, the Chaetosiphonaceae are a family of algae, in the order Bryopsidales. [more]

Chaetosphaeridiaceae

[more]

Chaloneriaceae

[more]

Champiaceae

[more]

Characeae

Charales is an order of pondweeds, freshwater algae in the division Charophyta. They are green plants believed to be the closest relatives of the green land plants. Linnaeus established the genus Chara in 1753. [more]

Characiaceae

Characiaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Characiochloridaceae

In taxonomy, the Characiochloridaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlamydomonadales. [more]

Characiosiphonaceae

Characiosiphonaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Cheirolepidiaceae

Cheirolepidiaceae is a family of extinct coniferous plants. [more]

Cheirostrobaceae

[more]

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodiaceae were a family of flowering plants, also called the Goosefoot Family. They are now included within family Amaranthaceae. The vast majority of Chenopods are weeds, and many are salt and drought tolerant. A few food crops also belong to the family: spinach, beets, chard, quinoa, and sugar beets. Chenopod pollen is a common allergen, but most Chenopod crops do not produce pollen. [more]

Chionographidaceae

[more]

Chlamydomonadaceae

In taxonomy, the Chlamydomonadaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlamydomonadales. [more]

Chlamydomondaceae

[more]

Chlorangiaceae

[more]

Chlorangiellaceae

[more]

Chlorangiopsidaceae

[more]

Chloranthaceae

Chloranthaceae () is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. The family consists of four genera, totalling several dozen species, of herbaceous or woody plants occurring in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Madagascar, Central & South America, and the West Indies. Members of this family are aromatic and have opposite, evergreen leaves with distinctive serrate margins and interpetiolar stipules (similar to the stipules found in family Rubiaceae). The flowers are inconspicuous, and arranged in inflorescences. Petals are absent in this family, and sometimes so are sepals. The flowers can be either hermaphrodite or of separate sexes. The fruit is drupe-like, consisting of one carpel. [more]

Chlorellaceae

In taxonomy, the Chlorellaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlorellales. [more]

Chlorococcaceae

Chlorococcaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Chlorocystidaceae

In taxonomy, the Chlorocystidaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Ulotrichales. [more]

Chlorodendraceae

In taxonomy, the Chlorodendraceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlorodendrales. [more]

Chlorokybaceae

Chlorokybus is a genus of charophyte containing the sole species Chlorokybus atmophyticus, a soil alga found in alpine areas. It sometimes has been classified as the sole member of the class Chlorokybophyceae but more recently is included in the family Klebsormidiaceae within the plant division Charophyta. [more]

Chlorophyceae

Chlorosarcinaceae

[more]

Chlorosphaeraceae

[more]

Chlrococcaceae

[more]

Chondriellaceae

[more]

Chonecoleaceae

[more]

Choreocolacaceae

[more]

Chroolepidaceae

[more]

Chrysobalanaceae

Chrysobalanaceae is a family of trees, shrubs and flowering plants, consisting of 17 genera and about 460 species of that grows in the Tropics or is subtropical and common in the Americas. Some of the species contain silica in their bodies for rigidity and so the mesophyll often has sclerencymatous idioblasts The flower produces a fruit and the plant is commonly known as a coco plum. [more]

Cibotiaceae

Cibotium (from the Greek kibootion, meaning chest or box) is a genus of eleven species of tropical tree fern?subject to much confusion and revision?distributed fairly narrowly in Hawaii (four species, plus a hybrid, collectively known as hapu?u), Southeast Asia (five species), and the cloud forests of Central America and Mexico (two species). Some of the species currently listed in the literature seem to be synonyms or local-variant subspecies. , from Hawai?i, is the most frequently encountered Cibotium species in the horticultural trade, together with its sibling species Cibotium chamissoi and the potentially huge Cibotium menziesii. The remaining Hawaiian Cibotium, C. nealiae, is a 1-metre (3.3 ft) dwarf variety, restricted to the island of Kaua?i that is never seen in the horticultural trade. Precise identification of Cibotium species is difficult, although all have shiny and rather waxy fronds when viewed from above, with varying degrees of powdery-pale blush when seen from underneath. The natural habitat of Cibotium is among the dripping trees and stream gulleys of the rainforests on Hawai?i's windward volcanic slopes. [more]

Cinclidotaceae

[more]

Circaeasteraceae

Herbs annual. Cotyledons persistent. Leaves rosulate, borne on elongated hypocotyl; veins dichotomous. Flowers fascicled in axil of upper leaves, bisexual but number of organs variable. Sepals 2 or 3, persistent. Petals absent. Stamens 1 or 2(or 3), alternating with sepals; anthers 2-loculed, introrse. Carpels 1--3, separate; ovary superior; style absent; stigma terminal, papillate; ovule 1 per ovary, subapical, pendulous. Fruit indehiscent. Seeds with copious endosperm; embryo terete, straight, with short cotyledons.[4] [more]

Cistaceae

The Cistaceae (or rock-rose family, rock rose family) is a small family of plants known for its beautiful shrubs, which are profusely covered by flowers at the time of blossom. This family consists of about 170-200 species in eight genera, distributed primarily in the temperate areas of Europe and the Mediterranean basin, but also found in North America; a limited number of species are found in South America. Most Cistaceae are subshrubs and low shrubs, and some are herbaceous. They prefer dry and sunny habitats. The Cistaceae grow well on poor soils, and many of them are cultivated in gardens. [more]

Cladophoraceae

In taxonomy, the Cladophoraceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Cladophorales. This family includes notably marimo (A. linnaei), as well as the genus Chaetomorpha which has a few members used in saltwater aquariums. [more]

Cladophorophyceae

[more]

Cladoxylaceae

[more]

Clavatoraceae

[more]

Clethraceae

Clethraceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Ericales, native to warm temperate to tropical regions of Asia and the Americas, with one species also on Madeira. The family comprises two genera, Clethra and Purdiaea. [more]

Cleveaceae

[more]

Climaciaceae

[more]

Climacosphenaceae

[more]

Closteriaceae

The Closteriaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Desmidiales (desmids). [more]

Clusiaceae

The Clusiaceae or Guttiferae Juss. (1789) (nom. alt. et cons. = alternative and valid name) is a family of plants formerly including about 37 genera and 1610 species of trees and shrubs, often with milky sap and fruits or capsules for seeds. It is primarily tropical. More so than many plant families, it shows a large amount of variation in plant morphology (for example, 3 to 10 petals, fused or unfused petals, and many other traits). According to the APG III, this family belongs to the order Malpighiales. The APG III system reduced the circumscription of this family to just 14 genera and about 595 species. [more]

Cneoraceae

[more]

Cobaeaceae

Cobaeaceae is a subfamily of the Polemoniaceae family of flowering plants. It is native to sub-tropical and tropical parts of the Americas. [more]

Coccomyxaceae

Coccomyxaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Cochlospermaceae

Cochlospermaceae is a family of two genera and 20-25 species of trees and shrubs. They occur widely throughout the tropical regions of the world, but are curiously absent from Malaysia. Most species in this family are mesophytic or xerophytic, growing primarily in drier climates. [more]

Codiaceae

In taxonomy, the Codiaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Codiolaceae

[more]

Codoniaceae

Fossombroniaceae (sometimes Riccardiaceae) is a family of liverworts in the order Metzgeriales. Most species are small and thallose, but the thallus is typically ruffled to give the appearance of being leafy. [more]

Coelastraceae

A family of green algae in the order Chlorococcales. Colonial algae usually arranged 3 dimensionally in spherical to loosely spherical shapes. Individual cells connected to each other via cell wall extensions. Cells usually in an even number arrangement. Chloroplasts plate-like with 1 pyrenoid. Name derrived from coelom, in reference to the cavity created inside the sphere. . [more]

Colaconemataceae

[more]

Colchicaceae

Colchicaceae is a botanical name of a family of flowering plants. [more]

Coleochaetaceae

[more]

Collinsiellaceae

[more]

Columelliaceae

Columelliaceae is a family of trees and shrubs native to the Andes of South America. [more]

Combretaceae

Combretaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Myrtales. The family includes about 600 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas in 18 genera. The family includes the leadwood tree, Combretum imberbe. Three genera, Conocarpus, Laguncularia and Lumnitzera, grow in mangrove habitats (mangals). Combretaceae are widespread in the subtropics and tropics. Some members of this family produce useful construction timber, such as idigbo from Terminalia ivorensis. [more]

Commelinaceae

Commelinaceae is a family of flowering plants. In less formal contexts, the group is referred to as the dayflower family or spiderwort family. It is one of five families in the order Commelinales and by far the largest of these with an estimated 650 species in 40 genera. Well known genera include Commelina (dayflowers) and Tradescantia (spiderworts). The family is diverse in both the Old World tropics and the New World tropics, with some genera present in both. The variation in morphology, especially that of the flower and inflorescence, is considered to be exceptionally high amongst the angiosperms. [more]

Compositae

[more]

Compsopogonaceae

[more]

Connaraceae

The Connaraceae is a family of 16 genera and about 350 species. [more]

Conocephalaceae

Conocephalum is a genus of liverworts in order Marchantiales. It is the only member of family Conocephalaceae within that order. This genus has worldwide distribution. [more]

Conostylidaceae

[more]

Convallariaceae

Nolinoideae is a monocot subfamily of the family Asparagaceae in the APG III system of 2009. It was previously treated as a separate family, Ruscaceae s.l. The family name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Nolina. [more]

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, are a group of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs. [more]

Corallinaceae

The Corallinaceae are one of the two extant Coralline families of red algae; they are differentiated from the morphologically similar Sporolithaceae by their formation of grouped sporangial chambers, clustered into sori. The Corallinoideae is monophyletic; the other subfamilies form another monophyletic group. [more]

Cordaitanthaceae

[more]

Coriariaceae

[more]

Cornaceae

Cornaceae (the dogwood family) is a cosmopolitan family of flowering plants in the order Cornales. It contains approximately 110 species, mostly trees and shrubs, which may be deciduous or evergreen. Members of this family usually have opposite or alternate simple leaves, four- or five-parted flowers clustered in inflorescences or pseudanthia, and drupaceous fruits. In northern temperate areas, Cornaceae is well known from two genera: Cornus, the dogwoods, and Nyssa, the tupelos. [more]

Corokiaceae

[more]

Corsiaceae

Corsiaceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. The APG II system (2003) treats the family in the order Liliales, in the clade monocots. This is a slight change from the APG system, of 1998, which left the family unplaced as to order, but did assign it also to the monocots. [more]

Corsiniaceae

Corsiniaceae is a family of liverworts in order Marchantiales. [more]

Corylaceae

Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams and hop-hornbeams, numbering about 130 species. They are mostly natives of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with a few species reaching the Southern Hemisphere in the Andes in South America. [more]

Corynocarpaceae

Corynocarpus is the only genus of plants in the family Corynocarpaceae. It comprises six species growing from New Guinea to New Zealand and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. [more]

Corynocystaceae

[more]

Corynomorphaceae

[more]

Coscinodiscoideae

[more]

Costaceae

Costaceae or the Costus Family is a family of pantropical monocots. They belong to the order Zingiberales, which contains other horticulturally and economically important plants such as the banana (Musaceae), bird-of-paradise (Strelitziaceae), and edible ginger (Zingiberaceae). The seven genera contain about 100 species (1 in Monocostus, 2 in Dimerocostus, 16 in Tapeinochilos, 2 in Paracostus, ca. 8 in Chamaecostus, ca. 4 in Cheilocostus, ca. 80 in Costus) and are found in tropical climates of Asia, Africa, and Central/South America. [more]

Crassulaceae

Crassulaceae, or the orpine family, are a family of dicotyledons. They store water in their succulent leaves. They are found worldwide, but mostly occur in the Northern Hemisphere and southern Africa, typically in dry and/or cold areas where water may be scarce. The family includes about 1,400 species in 33 genera. [more]

Croomiaceae

[more]

Crossocarpaceae

[more]

Crossosomataceae

Crossosomataceae is a small plant family, consisting of three genera of shrubs found only in the dry parts of the American southwest and Mexico. [more]

Cruciferae

[more]

Cruoriaceae

[more]

Cryphaeaceae

[more]

Crypteroniaceae

Crypteroniaceae is a family of flowering trees and shrubs. The family includes about 10 species in 3 genera, native to Indomalaya. [more]

Ctenocladaceae

[more]

Ctenolophonaceae

[more]

Cubiculosporaceae

[more]

Cucurbitaceae

The plant family Cucurbitaceae consists of various squashes, melons, and gourds, including crops such as cucumber, pumpkins, luffas, and watermelons. The family is predominantly distributed around the tropics, where those with edible fruits were amongst the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds. [more]

Culcitaceae

Culcitaceae is a family of ferns within the order Cyatheales. An example genus within the family is Culcita. [more]

Cunoniaceae

The Cunoniaceae is a family of 26 genera and about 350 species of woody plants in the Antarctic flora, with many laurifolia species with glossy leaves endemic to laurel forest habitat. The family is native to Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, southern South America, the Mascarene Islands and southern Africa. Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia in South Africa and New Caledonia, and Caldcluvia and Eucryphia in both Australia and South America. Caldcluvia also extends north of the Equator to the Philippines, and Geissois to Fiji in the Pacific Ocean. [more]

Cupressaceae

[more]

Curtisiaceae

Curtisia dentata (commonly known as the Assegai tree, Umlahleni or Cape Lancewood) is a flowering tree from Southern Africa. It is the sole species in genus Curtisia, which was originally classed as a type of "Dogwood" (Cornaceae), but is now placed in its own unique family Curtisiaceae. It is increasingly popular as an ornamental tree for gardens, with dark glossy foliage and sprays of pure white berries. [more]

Cuscutaceae

Cuscuta (Dodder) is a genus of about 100-170 species of yellow, orange or red (rarely green) parasitic plants. Formerly treated as the only genus in the family Cuscutaceae, recent genetic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has shown that it is correctly placed in the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. The genus is found throughout the temperate to tropical regions of the world, with the greatest species diversity in subtropical and tropical regions; the genus becomes rare in cool temperate climates, with only four species native to northern Europe. [more]

Cyanastraceae

Tecophilaeaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots. [more]

Cyanidiaceae

[more]

Cyanophoraceae

[more]

Cyatheaceae

The Cyatheaceae is the scaly tree fern family and includes the world's tallest tree ferns, which reach heights up to 20 m. They are also very ancient plants, appearing in the fossil record in the late Jurassic, though the modern genera likely appeared in the Tertiary. Cyatheaceae is the largest family of tree ferns, including about 500 species. Cyatheaceae and Dicksoniaceae, together with Metaxyaceae and Cibotiaceae, are a monophyletic group and constitute the "core tree ferns." Cyatheaceae are leptosporangiate ferns, the most familiar group of monilophytes. [more]

Cycadaceae

[more]

Cyclanthaceae

Cyclanthaceae is a family of flowering plants. [more]

Cyclocheilaceae

[more]

Cyclostigmaceae

[more]

Cylindrocapsaceae

[more]

Cymodoceaceae

Cymodoceaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants, sometimes known as the "manatee-grass family". Many taxonomists have not recognized this family. [more]

Cynomoriaceae

Herbs perennial, parasitic, reddish brown, without chloropyll, monoecious, rarely polygamous. Root fleshy. Stem simple or branched, cylindric. Leaves spiral, scalelike, caducous. Flowers densely gathered into a terminal, spadix, minute. Perianth lobes (1-) 4-6(-8) . Stamen 1. Ovary inferior, 1-loculed; ovule 1, pendulous; style simple, reduced to a nectary in male flowers. Fruit a nutlet.[5] [more]

Cyperaceae

Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses or rushes. The family is large, with some 5,500 species described in about 109 genera. These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America. While sedges may be found growing in all kinds of situations, many are associated with wetlands, or with poor soils. Ecological communities dominated by sedges are known as sedgelands. [more]

Cyphiaceae

[more]

Cyphocarpaceae

[more]

Cyrillaceae

Cyrillaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Ericales, native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Americas. The family comprises two genera, each with a single species, Cyrilla racemiflora and . [more]

Cyrtopodaceae

[more]

Cystocloniaceae

[more]

Cytinaceae

Cytinaceae is a family of parasitic flowering plant. It comprised two genera, Cytinus and Bdallophytum, totalling ten species. [more]

Dactylanthaceae

[more]

Daltoniaceae

[more]

Daphniphyllaceae

Daphniphyllum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Daphniphyllaceae, including about 25 species, all evergreen shrubs and trees native to east and southeast Asia. In older classifications the genus was treated in the family Euphorbiaceae. [more]

Dasyaceae

[more]

Dasycladaceae

The Dasycladaceae is one of the two families of algae of the order Dasycladales. When found in Palaeozoic limestones, they typically indicate depositional depth of less than 5m. [more]

Dasypogonaceae

Dasypogonaceae is a botanical name of a family of flowering plants. Such a family has not been commonly recognized by taxonomists: the plants involved were usually included in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae. [more]

Datiscaceae

Datiscaceae are a family of Dicotyledonous plants, containing two species of the genus Datisca. Two other genera, Octomeles and Tetrameles are now classified in the Tetramelaceae family. [more]

Davalliaceae

Davalliaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales. It is sister to the largest family of ferns, Polypodiaceae, and shares some morphological characters with it. [more]

Davidiaceae

[more]

Davidsoniaceae

[more]

Dawsoniaceae

[more]

Degeneriaceae

Degeneriaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognised by more than a few taxonomists, at least over the past few decades. [more]

Delesseriaceae

The Delessericaeae is a family of about 100 genera of marine red alga. [more]

Dendrocerotaceae

The Dendrocerotaceae is the only family of hornworts in the order Dendrocerotales. [more]

Dennstaedtiaceae

Dennstaedtiaceae is one of fifteen families in the order Polypodiales, the most derived families within monilophytes (ferns). It includes the world's most abundant fern, Pteridium aquilinum (bracken). Members of the order generally have large, highly divided leaves and have either small, round intramarginal sori with cup-shaped indusia (e.g. Dennstaedtia) or linear marginal sori with a false indusium formed from the reflexed leaf margin (e.g. Pteridium). The morphological diversity among members of the order has confused past taxonomy, but recent molecular studies have supported the monophyly of the order and the family . The reclassification of Dennstaedtiaceae and the rest of the monilophytes was published in 2006, so most of the available literature is not updated. [more]

Derbesiaceae

In taxonomy, the Derbesiaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Desfontainiaceae

Desfontainia Ruiz & Pav. is a genus of plant that contains one species, Desfontainia spinosa, a native of Chile that is also known as Taique. The uses include medicinal purposes and as an ornamental evergreen shrub. It grows to two metres in height and width and has glossy dark green leaves that are holly-like in appearance and glossy red tubular flowers with yellow tips. [more]

Desmidiaceae

The Desmidiaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Desmidiales (desmids).. [more]

Dialypetalanthaceae

[more]

Dianellaceae

[more]

Diapensiaceae

Diapensiaceae is a small family of flowering plants, comprising 12 species in five genera. Three of the genera, , Galax, and Pyxidanthera, contain only a single species. The Asian species of Shortia were formerly separated as the genus Schizocodon, and some authors still recognize S. soldanelloides under that name. Another genus, Diplarche, was included in the family by some authors but is now regarded as a member of Ericaceae. [more]

Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalaceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting of 3 genera and about 165 species. Members of this family are trees, shrubs or lianas found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. [more]

Dichotomosiphonaceae

In taxonomy, the Dichotomosiphonaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Dichtomosiphonaceae

In taxonomy, the Derbesiaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Dicksoniaceae

The Dicksoniaceae is a family of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate ferns. Most of the 5-6 genera in the family are terrestrial ferns or have very short trunks compared to tree ferns of the family Cyatheaceae. However, some of the larger species can reach several metres in height. A number of others are epiphytes. They are found mostly in tropical regions in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as southern New Zealand. [more]

Dicnemonaceae

[more]

Dicranaceae

Dicranaceae is a family of mosses in class Bryopsida. Species within this family are dioicous. Genera in this family include Campylopus and Dicranoloma. [more]

Dicranemataceae

[more]

Dicranochaetaceae

[more]

Dicranophyllaceae

[more]

Dictyosphaeriaceae

Dictyosphaeriaceae is a family of green algae. It can reproduce either asexually by use of an autospore, or sexually by fertilization of an egg by sperm. It forms colonies which have a gelatinous coating. The four (or more?) daughter cells connect via filaments derived from the cell wall of the mother cell. The cell body is elliptical, spherical, or heart shaped. It has a single chloroplast which is plate-like or cup-shaped and contains a pyrenoid. [more]

Didiereaceae

[more]

Didymelaceae

Didymelaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family has been recognised by a fair number of taxonomists, at least over the past few decades. [more]

Diegodendraceae

[more]

Diervillaceae

[more]

Dilleniaceae

Dilleniaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been universally recognized by taxonomists. It is known to gardeners for the genus Hibbertia, which contains many commercially valuable garden species. [more]

Dioncophyllaceae

[more]

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscoreaceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, with about 750 species in eight or nine genera. The best-known member of the family is the Yam (Dioscorea). [more]

Dipentodontaceae

Dipentodon is a genus of flowering plants in the family Dipentodontaceae. Its only species, Dipentodon sinicus, is a small, deciduous tree native to southern China, Burma, and northern India. It has been little studied and until recently its affinities remained obscure. [more]

Dipsacaceae

The Dipsacaceae, or teasel family, of the order Dipsacales contains 350 species of perennial or biennial herbs and shrubs in eleven genera. Native to most temperate climates, they are found in Europe, Asia and Africa. Some species of this family have been naturalized in other places. [more]

Dipteridaceae

[more]

Dipterocarpaceae

Dipterocarpaceae is a family of 17 genera and approximately 500 species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees. The family name, from the type genus Dipterocarpus, is derived from Greek (di = two, pteron = wing and karpos = fruit) and refers to the two-winged fruit. The largest genera are Shorea (196 species), Hopea (104 species), Dipterocarpus (70 species), and Vatica (65 species). Many are large forest emergent species, typically reaching heights of 40?70 m tall, some even over 80 m (in the genera Dryobalanops, Hopea and Shorea), with the tallest known living specimen (Shorea faguetiana) 88.3 m tall. The species of this family are of major importance in the timber trade. Their distribution is pantropical, from northern South America to Africa, the Seychelles, India, Indochina, Indonesia and Malaysia. The greatest diversity of dipterocarpaceae occurs in Borneo. Some species are now endangered as a result of overcutting, extensive illegal logging and habitat conversion. They provide valuable woods, aromatic essential oils, balsam, resins and are a source for plywood. [more]

Dirachmaceae

Dirachma is the sole genus of the family Dirachmaceae. The genus has been monotypic until a second species was recently discovered in Somalia (>). [more]

Disceliaceae

Discelium is the only genus of moss in the family Disceliaceae; it contains the single species Discelium nudum. This species is rare, but is widely distributed in cool and temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere. [more]

Distichiaceae

[more]

Ditrichaceae

Plants minute or rather small to medium-sized, gregarious or loosely to densely tufted. Stems erect, simple or forked, with a central strand. Leaves mostly lanceolate, acuminate or subulate, straight or somewhat curved, rarely sheathing at base; in numerous rows (2 rows in Distichium) ; costa single, well developed, subpercurrent to excurrent, in section with 1 row of guide cells and 2 stereid bands, adaxial band sometimes much reduced; lamina cells smooth (± roughened in subula in Distichium) ; basal cells elongate, narrower towards the margins, those of basal angles not differentiated or forming a marginal border; distal cells isodiametric or short-rectangular to elongate, walls firm. Specialized asexual reproduction occasional, as multicellular filamentous gemmae borne in axils or along stems, or as specialised tubers or filamentous propagules on rhizoids. Sexual condition dioicous, autoicous, paroicous, or synoicous; perigonia axillary or on short branches adjacent to perichaetia, or terminal on separate plants; perichaetial leaves not markedly differentiated or with a longer, broader sheathing base and shorter subulate apex. Seta short to ± elongate, yellow to orange, reddish brown, brown, or reddish purple; capsules immersed to emergent and subglobose to long-exserted and ± cylindric, erect to inclined or pendulous, often ± curved or asymmetric; cleistocarpous, gymnostomous, or peristomate; annulus, when present, usually of 2-3 rows of larger cells, deciduous; peristome, when present, single, of 16 teeth, variously split into two terete filaments or perforate to near the base; operculum conic to short-rostrate. Calyptra cucullate, rarely mitrate. Spores spheric to ovoid or ± reniform, finely to coarsely papillose, verrucose, or somewhat vermicular or reticulate.[6] [more]

Donatiaceae

Donatia is a genus of two cushion plant species in the monogeneric family Donatiaceae. In the past, Donatia has been placed in the subfamily Donatioideae, described by Johannes Mildbraed in his 1908 taxonomic monograph of the family Stylidiaceae. The subfamily was created to distinguish the difference between the single genus Donatia from the five typical genera of the Stylidiaceae that Mildbraed placed in the Stylidioideae subfamily. The subfamily taxonomy represented the taxonomic uncertainty of Donatia, which had at one point also been placed in the Saxifragaceae. Donatia differs sufficiently from the genera in the Stylidiaceae in that it has free stamens and petals, paracytic stomata, and a pollen morphology distinct from the other genera. Because of this and the recent phylogenetic analysis based on rbcL genes, more recent treatments have segregated Donatia into its own family, the Donatiaceae. The molecular phylogenetic analysis has placed Donatia as a sister-group to Stylidiaceae, thus leaving the Stylidiaceae as a monophyletic family. [more]

Doryanthaceae

Doryanthaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots. The family has only recently been recognized by taxonomists. The APG III system of 2009 (unchanged from the 1998 and 2003 versions) does recognize this family. The family then includes only a single genus (Doryanthes) of few species of large plants in Eastern Australia. [more]

Dracaenaceae

Nolinoideae is a monocot subfamily of the family Asparagaceae in the APG III system of 2009. It was previously treated as a separate family, Ruscaceae s.l. The family name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Nolina. [more]

Drepanophycaceae

[more]

Droseraceae

Droseraceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. The family is also known under its common name, the sundew family. [more]

Dryopteridaceae

Dryopteridaceae, is a family of leptosporangiate ferns in the order Polypodiales. They are known colloquially as the wood ferns. They comprise about 1700 species and have a cosmopolitan distribution. They may be terrestrial, epipetric, hemiepiphytic, or epiphytic. Many are cultivated as ornamental plants. The largest genera are Elaphoglossum (600), Polystichum (260), Dryopteris (225), and Ctenitis (150). These four genera contain about 70% of the species. Dryopteridaceae diverged from the other families in eupolypods I about 100 Mya (million years ago). [more]

Duabangaceae

Duabanga is a small genus of lowland evergreen rainforest trees in southeast Asia, comprising two or three species. [more]

Duckeodendraceae

[more]

Dumontiaceae

[more]

Dunaliellaceae

In taxonomy, the Dunaliellaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlamydomonadales. [more]

Ebenaceae

The Ebenaceae are a family of flowering plants, which includes ebony and persimmon. The family has approximately 500 species of trees and shrubs in two genera, Diospyros and Euclea. The species are mostly evergreen and native to the tropics and subtropics, with a few deciduous species native to temperate regions. Diospyros contains 450-500 species and a pantropical distribution, with the greatest diversity of species in Indomalaya. Euclea contains 20 species, native to Africa, the Comoro Islands, and Arabia. A persistent calyx on the fruits is characteristic of the family. [more]

Ecdeiocoleaceae

Ecdeiocoleaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has rarely been recognized by taxonomists. [more]

Echinodiaceae

[more]

Echinostachyaceae

[more]

Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnaceae, the oleaster family, is a plant family of the order Rosales comprising small trees and shrubs, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia. The family has 45-50 species in three genera. [more]

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeaocarpaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family approximately contains 605 species of trees and shrubs in 12 genera. The largest genera are Elaeocarpus, with about 350 species, and Sloanea, with about 150. [more]

Elakatotrichaceae

[more]

Elatinaceae

Elatinaceae is a family of flowering plants with 35-50 species in 2 genera: Elatine and Bergia. The Elatine are mostly aquatic herbs, and the Bergia are subshrubs to shrubs. Elatine species are widely distributed throughout the world from temperate to tropical zones, with its greatest diversity found in temperate zones. Bergia is found in temperate to tropical Eurasia and Africa, with two tropical and one tropical to temperate species in the Americas. The center for biodiversity of Bergia is the Old World tropics, and this is also the center for biodiversity for the family. Neither genus is found in arctic ecosystems. [more]

Eleutherophyllaceae

[more]

Elkinsiaceae

[more]

Emblingiaceae

[more]

Empetraceae

The Ericaceae, commonly known as the heath or heather family, is a group of mostly calcifuge (lime-hating) flowering plants. The family is large, with roughly 4000 species spread across 126 genera, making it the 14th most speciose family of flowering plants. There are many well-known and economically important members of the Ericaceae, these include the cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, azalea, rhododendron, and various common heaths and heathers (Erica, Cassiope, Daboecia, and Calluna for example). [more]

Emplectopteridaceae

[more]

Emporiaceae

[more]

Encalyptaceae

Encalyptaceae is a family of mosses in order Encalyptales. It includes two genera; the genus , formerly included in the family, is now placed in its own family. [more]

Endocladiaceae

[more]

Endosphaeraceae

Endosphaeraceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Enemosphaeraceae

[more]

Entodontaceae

[more]

Entophylaceae

[more]

Eospermaceae

[more]

Epacridaceae

The Ericaceae, commonly known as the heath or heather family, is a group of mostly calcifuge (lime-hating) flowering plants. The family is large, with roughly 4000 species spread across 126 genera, making it the 14th most speciose family of flowering plants. There are many well-known and economically important members of the Ericaceae, these include the cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, azalea, rhododendron, and various common heaths and heathers (Erica, Cassiope, Daboecia, and Calluna for example). [more]

Ephedraceae

Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales. Ephedra grows in dry climates over wide areas of the northern hemisphere, including southwestern North America, Europe, north Africa, and southwest and central Asia, and, in the southern hemisphere, in South America south to Patagonia. In temperate climates, most Ephedra species grow on shores or in sandy soils with direct sun exposure. Common names in English include Joint-pine, Jointfir, Mormon-tea or Brigham Tea. The Chinese name is mahuang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: m?hu?ng; Wade?Giles: ma-huang; literally "cannabis yellow"). Ephedra is also sometimes called sea grape (from the French raisin de mer), a common name for the flowering plant Coccoloba uvifera. [more]

Ephemeraceae

Plants leafy ephemerals, less than 3 mm, solitary, scattered, or gregarious on sparse or abundant protonemata with upright, aerial, determinate branches, green, pale-yellow, or brown. Stem virtually absent or to 1 mm (to 3.7 mm in Micromitrium synoicum), rhizoids absent or few. Leaves rarely more than 12, the proximal small, broadly triangular to ovate, ecostate, apex acuminate, the distal becoming larger, linear, lanceolate, or ligulate, with or without shoulders, margins distal to the middle entire, serrulate, serrate, or spinose, apex acuminate; costate or ecostate; laminal cells lax and transparent, long-rhomboidal to rectangular, in some species becoming denser distally, smooth, papillose by projecting distal ends, or spinose. Specialized asexual reproduction by fragments and rarely by thick-walled elongate, swollen protonematal segments, commonly brown, and persisting on or in the soil. Sexual condition autoicous, dioicous, or synoicous. Perigonia arising from the protonemata, from rhizoids, or just proximal to the perichaetium; small, bud-like with ecostate leaves of lax areolation, broadly triangular to broadly ovate. Perichaetium consisting of the 1-3 most distal leaves on the stem, typically the largest and best developed. Vaginula conspicuous. Sporophytes 1-3 per perichaetium with immersed to emerging capsules. Seta virtually absent or very short. Capsule globose or ovoid, without or with an apiculus, cleistocarpous or opening along an indistinct or distinct ring of cells near the equator; exothecium of 1-2 layers of lax and thin-walled cells; stomates absent or superficial with two guard cells. Calyptra persistent, mitrate, and minute, or fugacious, mitrate or cucullate, and irregularly lobed or torn at the base, covering up to 2/3 of the capsule. Spores appearing reniform, globose, or variously angled, 20-120 µm, ranging from barely papillose to coarsely warty, the elaboration often correlating with degree of maturity, usually bearing small remnants of a hyaline membrane, orange, red, brown, or black.[7] [more]

Ephemeropsidaceae

[more]

Equisetaceae

Equisetaceae, sometimes called the horsetail family, is the only extant family of the class Equisetales, with one surviving genus, Equisetum, which comprises about twenty species. [more]

Eremolepidaceae

Santalaceae is a widely distributed family of flowering plants which, like other members of Santalales, are partially parasitic on other plants. Modern treatments of the Santalaceae include the family Viscaceae (mistletoes), previously considered distinct. [more]

Eremosphaeraceae

[more]

Eremosynaceae

[more]

Ericaceae

The Ericaceae, commonly known as the heath or heather family, is a group of mostly calcifuge (lime-hating) flowering plants. The family is large, with roughly 4000 species spread across 126 genera, making it the 14th most speciose family of flowering plants. There are many well-known and economically important members of the Ericaceae, these include the cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, azalea, rhododendron, and various common heaths and heathers (Erica, Cassiope, Daboecia, and Calluna for example). [more]

Eriocaulaceae

The Eriocaulaceae or pipewort family is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the order Poales. The family is large, with about 1,150-1,200 species described in ten genera. The family is widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical regions, particularly the Americas. Very few species extend to temperate regions, with e.g. only 16 species in the United States, mostly in the southern states from California to Florida, only two species in Canada, and only one species (Eriocaulon aquaticum) in Europe. They tend to be associated with wet soils, many growing in shallow water. This is also repoted from Southern part of India and the regions of Western Ghats Hot spots. [more]

Eriospermaceae

Nolinoideae is a monocot subfamily of the family Asparagaceae in the APG III system of 2009. It was previously treated as a separate family, Ruscaceae s.l. The family name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Nolina. [more]

Erpodiaceae

Plants small, prostrate, usually freely branched, usually in mats. Stems smooth, radiculose, rhizoids smooth, in clusters contiguous to leaf insertion on abaxial side; axillary hairs minute, 2-3 cells in length, basal cell small, apical cell enlarged, ± clavate; paraphyllia none; pseudoparaphyllia minute, ovate, acute; epidermal layer ± bulging, outer cortical cells small, firm-walled in 1-2 layers, similar to epidermis, interior cortical cells somewhat uniform, enlarged, thin-walled; central strand absent. Leaves of stems and branches similar, usually imbricate, ± monomorphic and spirally arranged, or distinctly dimorphic and arranged in two dorsal and two ventral rows, erect or spreading and ± complanate when dry, spreading and often ± complanate when moist, bilaterally symmetric or asymmetric, lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, rounded, obtuse, or acute, acuminate to subulate, ecostate; margin elimbate, entire; laminal cells firm-walled, smooth or pluripapillose, distal cells quadrate (including rhombic) to hexagonal, oblate-hexagonal or rhomboidal, proximal cells oblate-oblong in several marginal rows, often elongate in mid-proximal region. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition autoicous; perigonia gemmiform, axillary; perichaetia terminal on short axillary branches, leaves erect, usually enlarged and sheathing sporophyte at maturity. Sporophytes usually numerous, solitary in perichaetia. Seta short to nearly absent, usually straight. Capsule immersed to shortly exserted, erect, radially symmetric, oblong- or ovoid-cylindric, pale yellow to yellow-brown; exothecial cells thin-walled, oblong to oblong-hexagonal, estomatose or stomatose, stomata superficial, restricted to base or proximal half of theca; annuli none to well developed; peristome none, or diplolepidous, composed of 16 papillose, lanceolate teeth, or reduced to irregular, pale, papillose segments; opercula conic-apiculate to conic-rostrate. Calyptra small, usually covering only opercula and distal ends of thecae, mitrate, lobed, smooth to ± papillose, more or less plicate, plicae often serrate or serrulate, or rarely, large, twisted, covering capsules completely and clasping the distal end of seta, or rarely, cucullate, ± papillose, non-plicate. Spores finely papillose to nearly smooth, relatively large.[8] [more]

Erythropeltidaceae

[more]

Erythrotrichiaceae

[more]

Erythroxylaceae

The Erythroxylaceae (or coca family) is a family of flowering trees and shrubs consisting of 4 genera and approximately 240 species. The four genera are Benth, Erythroxylum P. Br, Nectaropetalum Engl., and Pinacopodium (Hegnauer 1980, 279). [more]

Escalloniaceae

The Escalloniaceae is a family of flowering plants comprising about 130 species in seven genera. In the APG II system it is one of eight families in the euasterids II clade (campanulids) that are unplaced as to order. More recent research has provided evidence that two of those families, Eremosynaceae and Tribelaceae, arose from within Escalloniaceae; the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website therefore merges these two families into Escalloniaceae, and also places the family alone in order Escalloniales. [more]

Eucommiaceae

[more]

Eucryphiaceae

The Cunoniaceae is a family of 26 genera and about 350 species of woody plants in the Antarctic flora, with many laurifolia species with glossy leaves endemic to laurel forest habitat. The family is native to Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, southern South America, the Mascarene Islands and southern Africa. Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia in South Africa and New Caledonia, and Caldcluvia and Eucryphia in both Australia and South America. Caldcluvia also extends north of the Equator to the Philippines, and Geissois to Fiji in the Pacific Ocean. [more]

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae, the Spurge family are a large family of flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7,500 species. Most are herbs, but some, especially in the tropics, are also shrubs or trees. Some are succulent and resemble cacti. [more]

Eupodiscaceae

The family Eupodiscaceae C. A. Agardh 1832, is a diatom family (Bacillariophyceae) present both in marine and freshwater habitats Odontella is the only genera in this family with typical marine species. However, Round et al. (1990) placed Odontella in (Schutt) Lemmermann, order Triceratiales Round and Crawford, subclass Biddulphiophycidae Round and Crawford . The taxonomic status of this family is unclear and disputed. [more]

Eupomatiaceae

[more]

Eupteleaceae

Eupteleaceae is a family of flowering plants. [more]

Eustichiaceae

Eustichia is the only genus of moss in family Eustichiaceae. [more]

Eviostachyaceae

[more]

Exormothecaceae

[more]

Fabaceae

The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family, is a large and economically important family of flowering plants. The group is the third largest land plant family, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with 730 genera and over 19,400 species. The largest genera are Astragalus (over 2,400 species), Acacia (over 950 species), Indigofera (around 700 species), Crotalaria (around 700 species), and Mimosa (around 500 species). [more]

Fabroniaceae

[more]

Fagaceae

The family Fagaceae, or beech family, comprises about 900 species of both evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs, which are characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of cup-like (cupule) nuts. Fagaceous leaves are often lobed and both petioles and stipules are generally present. Fruits lack endosperm and lie in a scaly or spiny husk that may or may not enclose the entire nut, which may consist of one to seven seeds. The best-known group of this family is the oaks, genus Quercus, the fruit of which is a non-valved nut (usually containing one seed) called an acorn. The husk of the acorn in most oaks only forms a cup in which the nut sits. [more]

Faucheaceae

[more]

Fissidentaceae

Fissidentaceae is a family of mosses in the order Dicranales. [more]

Flacourtiaceae

Flacourtiaceae is a defunct family of flowering plants whose former members have been scattered to various other families, mostly to Achariaceae, Samydaceae, and Salicaceae. It was so vaguely defined that hardly anything seemed out of place there and it became a dumping ground for odd and anomalous genera, gradually making the family even more heterogeneous. In 1975, Hermann Sleumer said "Flacourtiaceae as a family is a fiction; only the tribes are homogeneous." [more]

Flagellariaceae

Lianas high climbing, robust, glabrous. Rhizome sympodial, diffuse. Stems terete, solid, hard, apically usually equally branched; axillary buds absent. Leaves distichous, circinate; leaf sheath tubular, closed, connected with leaf blade by a short pseudopetiole; leaf blade grasslike, stomata paracytic, apex extended into tendril; tendril simple, involutely coiled, abaxially flattened, hard. Inflorescences terminal, paniculate. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, sessile, actinomorphic, 3-merous, small; perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free, whitish, petaloid, membranous, persistent, 3 inner ones largest. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, exserted; filaments filiform; anthers basifixed, linear-oblong to linear, sagittate, 2-loculed, latrorse, dehiscing by longitudinal slits; pollen grains ulcerate and similar to those of grasses. Ovary superior, obtusely 3-angled, 3-loculed; ovule 1 per locule; placentation axile. Style very short; stigmas 3, linear-clavate. Fruit drupaceous with 1(or 2) seeds. Seeds globose or flattened; endosperm copious, starchy; embryo minute.[9] [more]

Flemingitaceae

[more]

Foetidiaceae

[more]

Fontinalaceae

[more]

Fossombroniaceae

Fossombroniaceae (sometimes Riccardiaceae) is a family of liverworts in the order Metzgeriales. Most species are small and thallose, but the thallus is typically ruffled to give the appearance of being leafy. [more]

Fouquieriaceae

Fouquieria is a genus of 11 species of desert plants, the sole genus in the family Fouquieriaceae. The genus includes the ocotillo (F. splendens) and the boojum tree or cirio (F. columnaris). They have semi-succulent stems with thinner spikes projecting from them, with leaves on the bases spikes. They are unrelated to cacti and do not look much like them; their stems are proportionately thinner than cactus stems and their leaves are larger. [more]

Francoaceae

[more]

Frankeniaceae

Frankeniaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been widely recognized by many taxonomists; it has commonly been assumed to be closely related to family Tamaricaceae. [more]

Fumariaceae

Fumariaceae (fumitory, fumewort, or bleeding-heart family; sometimes treated as subfamily Fumarioideae under family Papaveraceae) is a family of about 575 species of herbaceous plants in 20 genera, native to the Northern Hemisphere and South Africa. [more]

Funariaceae

Funariaceae is a family of mosses in order Funariales. There are approximately 300 species included in the family, with 200 species in Funaria and another 80 classified in Physcomitrium. [more]

Furcellariaceae

[more]

Gainiaceae

[more]

Galaxauraceae

Galaxaura is a genus of thalloid alga that forms dichotomous branches are formed; the medulla has a filamentous construction. It may be related to the fossil Gymnocodiaceae. [more]

Garryaceae

Garryaceae is a small family of dicotyledons, including only two genera: [more]

Gayraliaceae

[more]

Geissolomataceae

[more]

Gelidiaceae

The Gelidiaceae is a small family of red algae containing seven genera. Many of the algae is used to make agar. [more]

Gelidiellaceae

[more]

Gelsemiaceae

[more]

Geniostomaceae

[more]

Genomospermaceae

[more]

Gentianaceae

Gentianaceae are a family of flowering plants of 87 genera and over 1500 species. [more]

Geocalycaceae

[more]

Geosiridaceae

[more]

Geraniaceae

Geraniaceae is a family of flowering plants placed in the order Geraniales. The family name is derived from the genus Geranium. It includes both the genus Geranium (the cranesbills) and the garden plants called geraniums, which modern botany classifies as genus Pelargonium, along with other related genera. [more]

Gesneriaceae

Gesneriaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of ca. 150 genera and ca. 3,200 species in the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics, with a very small number extending to temperate areas. Many species have colorful and showy flowers and are cultivated as ornamental plants. [more]

Giffeniaceae

[more]

Gigartinaceae

[more]

Ginkgoaceae

The Ginkgoaceae is a family of gymnosperms which appeared during the Mesozoic Era, of which the only extant representative is Ginkgo biloba, which is for this reason sometimes regarded as a living fossil. Formerly, however, there were several other genera and forests of ginkgo existed. Because leaves can take such diverse forms within a single species, these are a poor measure of diversity, but wood structure points to the existence of diverse ginkgo forests in ancient times. [more]

Gisekiaceae

[more]

Glaucidiaceae

[more]

Glaucocystaceae

[more]

Glaucosphaeraceae

[more]

Gleicheniaceae

The forked ferns are the family Gleicheniaceae. They are sometimes ? like all ferns and the related horsetails ? placed in an Monilophytes of subdivision Euphyllophytina, allowing for more precise phylogenetic arrangement of the tracheophytes. More conventionally, the name Pteridophyta, ranked as a division, is used in lieu of the Monilophytes. The formerly independent families Dicranopteridaceae and Stromatopteridaceae are nowadays generally included in the Gleicheniaceae, whereas the Dipteridaceae and Matoniaceae, though closely related, are considered spearate families by most authors. [more]

Globulariaceae

[more]

Gloeochaetaceae

[more]

Gloeococcaceae

[more]

Gloeocystaceae

[more]

Gloiosiphoniaceae

[more]

Glossopteridaceae

[more]

Gnetaceae

Gnetum is a genus of about 30-35 species of gymnosperms, the sole genus in the family Gnetaceae and order Gnetales. They are tropical evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. Unlike other gymnosperms they possess vessel elements in the xylem. Some species have been proposed to have been the first plants to be insect pollinated as they occur in association with the extinct pollinating scorpionflies. [more]

Goebeliellaceae

[more]

Goetzeaceae

[more]

Gomontiaceae

[more]

Gomophonemataceae

[more]

Gomortegaceae

Gomortega keule (syn. G. nitida; Spanish names Keule, Queule and Hualhual) is a tree native to Chile. It is the sole species of the genus Gomortega and, according to the APG II system of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system of 1998), of the monotypic family Gomortegaceae, assigned to the order Laurales in the clade magnoliids. [more]

Gondwanostachyaceae

[more]

Goniaceae

Gonium is a genus of colonial algae, a member of the order Volvocales. Typical colonies have 4 to 16 cells, all the same size, arranged in a flat plate, with no anterior-posterior differentiation. In a colony of 16 cells, four are in the center, and the other 12 are on the four sides, three each. A description by G.M. Smith (1920, p. 94): [more]

Goniotrichaceae

[more]

Gonystylaceae

[more]

Goodeniaceae

Goodeniaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Asterales. It contains about 404 species in twelve genera. The family is distributed mostly in Australia, except for the genus Scaevola, which is pantropical. Its species are found across most of Australia, being especially common in arid and semi-arid climates. [more]

Gosslingiaceae

[more]

Goupiaceae

[more]

Gracilariaceae

[more]

Gramineae

[more]

Grammitidaceae

Polypodiaceae is a family of polypod ferns, which includes more than 60 genera divided into several tribes and containing around 1,000 species. Nearly all are epiphytes, but some are terrestrial. [more]

Greyiaceae

The Melianthaceae is a family of flowering plants. The APG II system includes them within the rosid clade. All members of the Melianthaceae proper are trees or shrubs found in tropical and southern Africa. Francoaceae (the Bridal wreaths) is sometimes included in the family, and consists of two monotypic genera found in Chile. [more]

Grimmiaceae

Plants acrocarpous or cladocarpous, small to large, usually olivaceous to blackish green, growing in rigid cushions, tufts, mats or patches. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate, dichotomously to irregularly branched. Leaves erect and tightly appressed to crisped when dry, erect-spreading to patent when wet, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, less often ovate, oblong-ovate, linear, or lingulate, keeled, canaliculate, to broadly concave, smooth or sometimes longitudinally plicate, rarely with adaxial lamellae (Indusiella), margins plane, incurved, or variously recurved or revolute, mostly entire, 1- to multistratose, acuminate, acute to rounded-obtuse, typically with a hyaline awn, sometimes muticous, costa single, rarely spurred or forked distally (Codriophorus and Niphotrichum), usually strong, percurrent to excurrent, rarely subpercurrent, typically with one stereid band, distal lamina 1-2(-4) -stratose; basal cells quadrate to elongate, rarely oblate, straight, sinuose, or nodulose, basal juxtacostal and marginal regions usually differentiated, alar cells undifferentiated or hyaline; mid leaf cells quadrate to elongate, commonly sinuose or sinuose-nodulose, usually thick-walled. Perichaetia terminal on tips of stems or lateral branches; perichaetial leaves differentiated or not. Seta short to long, smooth or rarely papillose. Capsule usually erect, usually ovoid, obloid, cylindrical or cupulate, symmetric or rarely strongly ventricose at the base and gibbous, smooth or sulcate; annulus present or absent, often compound, deciduous or persistent; operculum mammillate to long-rostrate, sometimes attached to the columella after dehiscence (most Schistidium) ; peristome present, seldom rudimentary or absent, consisting of 16 teeth, lanceolate to linear, entire, perforated or cribrose, variously split into 2 or 3 unequal prongs or divided nearly to the base into two filiform somewhat paired segments, smooth or variously ornamented. Calyptra small to large, covering only the operculum to half or more of the capsule, cucullate, mitrate, or mitrate-campanulate, smooth or plicate, naked, sometimes papillose, slightly to distinctly lacerated or deeply lobed at the base. Spores globose, smooth or papillose.[10] [more]

Griseliniaceae

[more]

Grossulariaceae

Ribes is a genus of about 150 species of flowering plants native throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It is usually treated as the only genus in the family Grossulariaceae. Seven subgenera are recognized. [more]

Grubbiaceae

[more]

Gunneraceae

Gunneraceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists. [more]

Guttiferae

[more]

Gymnomitriaceae

[more]

Gymnophlaeaceae

[more]

Gyrostemonaceae

[more]

Gyrothyraceae

[more]

Haematococcaceae

Haematococcaceae is a family of green algae in the order Volvocales. [more]

Haematommaceae

[more]

Haemeschariaceae

[more]

Haemodoraceae

Haemodoraceae is a family of flowering plants. It is sometimes known as the "Bloodwort family". Primarily a Southern Hemisphere family, they are found in South Africa, Australia and New Guinea, and in the Americas (from SE U.S.A. to tropical South America). [more]

Halimedaceae

In taxonomy, the Halimedaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Halophilaceae

[more]

Halophytaceae

[more]

Haloragaceae

Haloragaceae (the watermilfoil family) is a dicotyledon flowering plant family in the order Saxifragales, based on the phylogenetic APG III system. In the Cronquist system, it was included in the order Haloragales. [more]

Halosphaeraceae

[more]

Halymeniaceae

[more]

Hamamelidaceae

The Hamamelidaceae, commonly referred to as the witch-hazel family, is a family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales. The clade consists of shrubs and small trees positioned within the woody clade of the core Saxifragales. The earlier Cronquist system recognized Hamamelidaceae in the Hamamelidales order. [more]

Hanguanaceae

Hanguanaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. Such a family has not been recognized by many taxonomists. [more]

Haplomitriaceae

Haplomitriales (formerly Calobryales) is an order of plants known as liverworts. The order is also called Calobryales in some sources, but the genus Calobryum is a synonym for Haplomitrium. [more]

Hectorellaceae

[more]

Hedwigiaceae

[more]

Heleochloridaceae

[more]

Heliconiaceae

Heliconia, derived from the Greek word helikonios, is a genus of about 100 to 200 species of flowering plants native to the tropical Americas and the Pacific Ocean islands west to Indonesia. Many species of Heliconia are found in rainforests or tropical wet forests of these regions. Common names for the genus include lobster-claws, wild plantains or false bird-of-paradise. The last term refers to their close similarity to the bird-of-paradise flowers (Strelitzia). Collectively, these plants are also simply referred to as heliconias. [more]

Helicophyllaceae

[more]

Heloniadaceae

[more]

Helosidaceae

[more]

Helwingiaceae

Shrubs, rarely small trees, dioecious, evergreen or deciduous. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, stipulate; stipules 2, early deciduous, divided or not; blade margins glandular serrate or crenate; veins pinnate. Inflorescences umbels, sessile, borne on midvein of leaf blade, rarely on petiole of leaves on upper part of young branches. Flowers 3- or 4(or 5) -merous, green or purple-green, unisexual; calyx teeth 3 or 4(or 5) ; petals 3 or 4(or 5) ; floral disk flat, fleshy. Staminate flowers 3 20 per umbel; stamens 3 or 4(or 5), alternate petals; anther locules 2. Carpellate flowers 1 4 per umbel; style short; stigma lobes 3 or 4(or 5), reflexed; ovary inferior, locules 3 or 4(or 5) ; ovules 1 per locule, pendulous, apotropous, with dorsal raphe. Fruit berries, drupelike. Seeds (stones) 1 4(or 5), with grooves and ridges when dry, crowned by persistent calyx and style; endosperm smooth; embryo straight.[11] [more]

Hemerocallidaceae

Hemerocallidoideae is the botanical name of a subfamily of flowering plants, part of the family Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato in the monocot order Asparagales according to the APG system of 2009. Earlier classification systems treated the group as a separate family, the Hemerocallidaceae. The name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Hemerocallis. The largest genera in the group are Dianella (with 20 species), Hemerocallis (15), and Caesia (11). [more]

Hemionitidaceae

[more]

Herbertaceae

The family Herbertaceae is a family of liverworts. The family consists of the genera Herbertus and . The genus Herpocladium has been merged into Herbertus. [more]

Hernandiaceae

Hernandiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognised by most taxonomists. [more]

Herreriaceae

[more]

Herzogiariaceae

[more]

Hesperocallidaceae

[more]

Heteropyxidaceae

[more]

Hildenbrandiaceae

Hildenbrandiales is an order of crustose forms red alga which bear conceptacles and produce secondary pit-connections. They reproduce by vegetative gemmae as well as tetrasporangia, which are produced inside the conceptacles. The way in which the tetraspores are produced is unusual enough to justify the formation of this distinct order. Some members of the order are known from freshwater rivers as well . [more]

Hilieaceae

[more]

Himantandraceae

[more]

Hippocastanaceae

Hippocastanaceae is the name given to a small group of trees and shrubs, when this group is treated as a family. Its most widespread genus is Aesculus (the horse-chestnuts and buckeyes, syn. Pavia). However, the American genus Billia and the Chinese genus Handeliodendron are also sometimes included in this family. A feature of the family is the palmate compound leaves. [more]

Hippocrateaceae

Hippocrateaceae Juss. previously consisted of about 150 tropical and subtropical species of shrubs and lianes, and is now included in the Celastraceae family. Formerly it comprised the following genera: [more]

Hippuridaceae

Hippuris, the Mare's tail, was previously the sole genus in the family Hippuridaceae. Following genetic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, it has now been transferred to the family Plantaginaceae, with Hippuridaceae being reduced to synonymy under Plantaginaceae. [more]

Hookeriaceae

[more]

Hoplestigmataceae

[more]

Hormotilaceae

Hormotilaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Horneophytaceae

[more]

Hostaceae

[more]

Hsuaceae

[more]

Huaceae

Huaceae is a family of plant in the rosids group, which has been classed in the orders Malpighiales, Malvales, and Violales or in its own order Huales. The APG II system places it in the clade eurosids I, whereas the APG III system of 2009 placed it within the Oxalidales. It contains the following genera: [more]

Hugoniaceae

[more]

Humiriaceae

Humiriaceae (or, alternatively Houmiriaceae Juss.) is a family of evergreen flowering plants. It comprises 8 genera and about 50 species. [more]

Hyacinthaceae

Scilloideae is a subfamily of the monocot family Asparagaceae in the order Asparagales. The Scilloideae are bulbous flowering plants, which have sometimes been placed in a separate family, the Hyacinthaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of the type genus, Scilla. Some are popular spring-flowering garden bulbs, such as hyacinth (Hyacinthus), grape hyacinth (Muscari), bluebell (Hyacinthoides) and squill (Scilla). Others are summer- and autumn-flowering, including Galtonia and Eucomis ('pineapple lilies'). Most are native to the Mediterranean climate and neighboring zones in South Africa, the Mediterranean Basin to Central Asia and Burma, and South America. [more]

Hydatellaceae

[more]

Hydnoraceae

[more]

Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangeaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Cornales, with a wide distribution in Asia and North America, and locally in southeastern Europe. [more]

Hydrastidaceae

[more]

Hydrocharitaceae

[more]

Hydrocotylaceae

[more]

Hydrodictyaceae

Hydrodictyaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Hydropeltidaceae

[more]

Hydrophyllaceae

Hydrophylloideae is a subfamily of the Boraginaceae family of flowering plants. Their taxonomic position is somewhat uncertain. Traditionally, and under the Cronquist system, they were given family rank under the name Hydrophyllaceae, and treated as part of the order Solanales. More recent systems have recognised their close relationship to the borage family, Boraginaceae, initially by placing Hydrophyllaceae and Boraginaceae together in an order Boraginales, and most recently by demoting Hydrophyllaceae to a subfamily of Boraginaceae. However the placement and circumscription of Boraginaceae is still uncertain: it is unplaced at order level, and there is some prospect of it being split up again in future. [more]

Hydropogonaceae

[more]

Hydrostachyaceae

[more]

Hylocomiaceae

Hylocomiaceae is a family of mosses, containing 15 genera: [more]

Hymenophyllaceae

The Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns and bristle ferns) is a family of two or more genera and over 600 species of ferns, with a subcosmopolitan distribution, but generally restricted to very damp places or to locations where they are wetted by spray from waterfalls or springs. A recent fossil find shows that ferns of Hymenophyllaceae have existed since at least the Upper Triassic. [more]

Hymenophyllopsidaceae

[more]

Hymenophytaceae

Hymenophyton is a genus of the order Metzgeriales (liverworts) containing one to three species. The genus has been described as monotypic, with all members possessing a close morphological resemblance, but phytochemical and molecular evidence supports an infrageneric classification two separate species. The name , regarded as a synonym of Hymenophyton flabellatum, has been resurrected. A population found in Chile is regarded as a separate clade, and the reinstatement of Hymenophyton pedicellatum has been proposed. [more]

Hypecoaceae

[more]

Hypericaceae

Hypericaceae is a plant family in the order Malpighiales. Molecular data supports its monophyly. Some systematists[] treat it as a subfamily of the Clusiaceae. When it is accepted as a distinct family, it contains the following genera: [more]

Hypnaceae

Hypnaceae is a large family of moss with broad worldwide occurrence in the class Bryopsida, subclass Bryidae and order Hypnales. Genera include and Ptilium. [more]

Hypneaceae

[more]

Hypnobartlettiaceae

[more]

Hypnodendraceae

[more]

Hypnomonadaceae

Hypnomonadaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Hypolepidaceae

[more]

Hypopterygiaceae

[more]

Hypoxidaceae

[more]

Hypseocharitaceae

[more]

Icacinaceae

Icacinaceae is a family of flowering plants. It consists of trees, shrubs, and lianas, primarily of the tropics. [more]

Idiospermaceae

[more]

Illecebraceae

[more]

Illiciaceae

Illiciaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. The family has been recognized by most taxonomists, at least for the past several decades. [more]

Iridaceae

The Iris family or Iridaceae is a family of perennial, herbaceous and bulbous plants included in the monocot order Asparagales, taking its name from the genus Iris. Almost worldwide in distribution and one of the most important families in horticulture, it includes more than 2000 species. Genera such as Crocus and Iris are significant components of the floras of parts of Eurasia, and Iris also is well-represented in North America. Gladiolus and Moraea are large genera and major constituents of the flora of sub-Saharan and Southern Africa. Sisyrinchium, with more than 140 species, is the most diversified Iridaceae genus in the Americas, where several other genera occur, many of them important in tropical horticulture. [more]

Irvingiaceae

Irvingiaceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting of 20 species in 3 genera. [more]

Isoetaceae

Iso?tes, also written Isoetes and commonly known as the quillworts, is a genus of plants in the class Isoetopsida and order Isoetales. They are considered "fern allies". There are about 140-150 species, with a cosmopolitan distribution but often scarce to rare. Some botanists split the genus, separating two South American species into the genus Stylites. [more]

Isophysidaceae

[more]

Isotachidaceae

[more]

Iteaceae

[more]

Ixerbaceae

[more]

Ixioliriaceae

[more]

Ixonanthaceae

Ixonanthaceae is a family of woody flowering plants up to 90 m tall (Allantospermum borneense), consisting of about 30 species in 4 or 5 genera. [more]

Jackiellaceae

[more]

Jaoaceae

[more]

Japonoliriaceae

[more]

Joinvilleaceae

Joinvilleaceae is a family of flowering plants. The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, 1998) assigns it to the order Poales in the clade commelinids in the monocots. The family consists of one genus with four currently accepted species, distributed from the Malay Peninsula to the Caroline Islands and high islands in the Pacific Ocean. It is evolutionarily significant as a relictual group that is a close relative of grasses. They closely resemble large grass plants, in both general appearance and microanatomy, but possess fleshy fruits. [more]

Jubulaceae

The family Jubulaceae (occasionally Frullaniaceae), is a family of liverworts. The family name is derived from the genus Jubula. The family consists of the genera, the Jubula and Frullania. The genera , Schusterella, and Steerea have been merged into Frullania. [more]

Juglandaceae

The Juglandaceae, also known as the walnut family, is a family of trees, or sometimes shrubs, in the order Fagales. Various members of this family are native to the Americas, Eurasia, and Southeast Asia. Members of the walnut family have large, aromatic leaves that are usually alternate, but opposite in Alfaroa and Oreomunnia. The leaves are pinnately compound, or ternate, and usually 20?100 cm long. [more]

Juncaceae

Juncaceae, the rush family, are a monocotyledonous family of flowering plants. There are eight genera and about 400 species. Members of the Juncaceae are slow-growing, rhizomatous, herbaceous plants, and they may superficially resemble grasses. They often grow on infertile soils in a wide range of moisture conditions. The most well-known and biggest genus is Juncus. Most of the Juncus species grow exclusively in wetland habitats. A few rushes are annuals, but most are perennials. [more]

Juncaginaceae

Juncaginaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants, recognized by most taxonomists for the past few decades. It is also known as the Arrowgrass family. [more]

Jungermanniaceae

Jungermanniaceae is the namesake family of leafy liverworts. It is a group of small plants that are widely distributed. Several genera formerly included within the family are now classified in the Myliaceae or Solenostomataceae. [more]

Kaliphoraceae

[more]

Kallymeniaceae

[more]

Karpinskyaceae

[more]

Kingdoniaceae

[more]

Kirkiaceae

[more]

Klebsormidiaceae

The Klebsormidiaceae are a family containing three genera of charophyte green alga forming multicellular, non-branching filaments. A fourth genus Chlorokybus is sometimes included as well, but this problematic and poorly known genus is sometimes placed in a separate class Chlorokybophyceae. [more]

Koeberliniaceae

[more]

Kornmanniaceae

In taxonomy, the Kornmanniaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Ulvales. [more]

Krameriaceae

Krameria is the only genus in the Krameriaceae family, of which any of the approximately 17 species are commonly known as Rhatany, ratany or rattany. Rhatany is also the name given to krameria root, a botanical remedy consisting of the dried root of para rhatany () or Peruvian rhatany (Krameria lappacea). [more]

Labiatae

[more]

Lacistemataceae

Lacistemataceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting 2 genera, Lacistema Sw. (11 species) and Lozania Mutis ex Caldas (5 species). [more]

Lactoridaceae

[more]

Lagenostomaceae

[more]

Lamiaceae

The mints, taxonomically known as Lamiaceae or Labiatae, are a family of flowering plants. They have traditionally been considered closely related to Verbenaceae, but in the 1990s, phylogenetic studies suggested that many genera classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The currently accepted version of Verbenaceae may not be more closely related to Lamiaceae than some of the other families in the order Lamiales. It is not yet known which of the families in Lamiales is closest to Lamiaceae. [more]

Lanariaceae

[more]

Langsdorffiaceae

[more]

Lardizabalaceae

Lardizabalaceae is a family of flowering plants. [more]

Lauraceae

The Lauraceae or Laurel family comprises a group of flowering plants included in the order Laurales. The family includes about 55 genera with perhaps as many as 4000 species world-wide, mostly from warm or tropical regions, especially Southeast Asia and South America. Most are aromatic evergreen trees or shrubs, but one or two genera, including Sassafras are deciduous, and Cassytha is a genus of parasitic vines. [more]

Lecidomataceae

[more]

Lecythidaceae

The Lecythidaceae comprise a family of about 20 genera and 250-300 species of woody plants native to tropical South America and Madagascar. [more]

Ledocarpaceae

[more]

Leeaceae

Leea (Tagalog: Talyantan) is a genus of plants that are distributed throughout Northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, South and Southeast Asia and parts of Africa. Leea contains approximately 70 species and is placed in the Vitaceae family. The APG II system places Leea in the subfamily (Vitaceae). Leea is often placed in its own family, Leeaceae, based on morphological differences between it and Vitaceae. These differences include ovule number per locule (two in Vitaceae and one in Leeaceae), carpel number (two in Vitaceae and three in Leeaceae), and the absence or presence of a staminoidal tube (present in Leeaceae) and floral disc (present in Vitaceae). Pollen structure has also been examined for taxonomic demarcation, though studies have concluded that the pollen of Leeaceae and Vitaceae suggests the families should remain separate while other studies conclude that Leea should be included in Vitaceae. [more]

Leguminosae

[more]

Leitneriaceae

Leitneria floridana (Corkwood), the sole species in the genus Leitneria, is a deciduous dioecious shrub or small tree, found only in the southeastern United States states of Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Missouri and Texas. [more]

Lejeuneaceae

Lejeuneaceae is the largest family of liverworts. It is also considered as the most evolved one, since most of its members are epiphytes, which means the grow mainly upon tree trunks. [more]

Lemaneaceae

[more]

Lembophyllaceae

[more]

Lemnaceae

Duckweeds, or water lentils, are aquatic plants which float on or just beneath the surface of still or slow-moving fresh water bodies. Also known as "bayroot", they arose from within the arum or aroid family, (Araceae), and therefore, often are classified as the subfamily Lemnoideae within the Araceae. Classifications created prior to the approximate end of the twentieth century tend to classify them as a separate family, Lemnaceae. [more]

Lennoaceae

Lennooideae is a subfamily of parasitic flowering plants of south-western North America and north-western South America. [more]

Lentibulariaceae

Lentibulariaceae (bladderwort family) is a family of carnivorous plants containing three genera, Genlisea, the corkscrew plants, Pinguicula, the butterworts, and Utricularia, the bladderworts. [more]

Lepicoleaceae

[more]

Lepidobotryaceae

[more]

Lepidocarpaceae

[more]

Lepidodendraceae

[more]

Lepidolaenaceae

[more]

Lepidoziaceae

A family of leafy liverworts. It is a group of small plants that are widely distributed. [more]

Leptodontaceae

[more]

Leptostomaceae

[more]

Leptostomataceae

[more]

Leptostrobaceae

[more]

Lepuropetalaceae

[more]

Lepyrodontaceae

[more]

Leskeaceae

[more]

Leucobryaceae

[more]

Leucodontaceae

[more]

Liagoraceae

[more]

Lilaeaceae

[more]

Liliaceae

The Liliaceae, or the lily family, is a family of monocotyledons in the order Liliales. Plants in this family have linear leaves, mostly with parallel veins but with several having net venation (e.g., Cardiocrinum, Clintonia, Medeola, Prosartes, Scoliopus, Tricyrtis), and flower arranged in threes. Several have bulbs, while others have rhizomes. Shade-dwelling genera usually have broad, net-veined leaves, fleshy fruits with animal-dispersed seeds, rhizomes, and small, inconspicuous flowers; genera native to sunny habitats usually have narrow, parallel-veined leaves, capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds, bulbs, and large, visually conspicuous flowers. [more]

Limnanthaceae

Limnanthaceae are a small family of annual herbs occurring throughout temperate North America. There are eight species and nineteen taxa currently recognized. Members of this family are prominent in vernal pool communities of California. Some taxa have been domesticated for use as an oil seed crop. Some members are listed as threatened or endangered and have been the focus of disputes over development plans (e.g. Limnanthes floccosa subsp. californica, Limnanthes vinculans ) [more]

Limnocharitaceae

Limnocharitaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants in the monocot order Alismatales. It is commonly known as the water poppy family. They are small, perennial, aquatic herbs, native to the tropics, but adventive or naturalized in the subtropics as a result of cultivation. [more]

Linaceae

The Linaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family is cosmopolitan, and includes approximately 250 species. There are 14 genera, classified into two subfamilies: Linoideae and Hugonioideae (often recognized as a distinct family, the Hugoniaceae). Leaves of Linaceae are always simple; arrangement varies from alternate (most species) to opposite (in Sclerolinon and some Linum) or whorled (in some Hesperolinon and Linum). The hermaphroditic, flowers are pentameric, or very rarely tetrameric (e.g. Radiola linoides, Linum keniense). [more]

Lindsaeaceae

Lindsaeaseae is a pantropical family of ferns in the order Polypodiales. It contains about 200 species, some of which also extend into the more temperate regions of eastern Asia, New Zealand, and South America. [more]

Linnaeaceae

[more]

Lissocarpaceae

[more]

Loasaceae

The Loasaceae is a family of 15-20 genera and about 200-260 species of flowering plants in the order Cornales, native to the Americas and Africa. The family comprises annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants, and a few shrubs and small trees. [more]

Lobeliaceae

[more]

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae are a family of flowering plants classified in order Gentianales. The family includes 13 genera, distributed around the world's tropics. [more]

Lomandraceae

[more]

Lomariopsidaceae

The Lomariopsidaceae is a family of ferns with a largely tropical distribution. The family is here restricted to the cladistic grouping determined by the paper cited below. [more]

Lomentariaceae

[more]

Lophiraceae

[more]

Lophocoleaceae

[more]

Lophophytaceae

[more]

Lophopyxidaceae

[more]

Lophosoriaceae

The Dicksoniaceae is a family of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate ferns. Most of the 5-6 genera in the family are terrestrial ferns or have very short trunks compared to tree ferns of the family Cyatheaceae. However, some of the larger species can reach several metres in height. A number of others are epiphytes. They are found mostly in tropical regions in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as southern New Zealand. [more]

Lophoziaceae

[more]

Loranthaceae

Loranthaceae is a family of flowering plants, which has been universally recognized by taxonomists. It consists of about 75 genera and 1,000 species of woody plants, many of them hemi-parasites, all of them except three having the mistletoe habit. The three terrestrial species are Nuytsia floribunda - the Western Australian Christmas tree, - a rare shrub of the Blue Mountains of Australia, and the Central to South American species of Gaiadendron punctatum. [more]

Lowiaceae

Herbs rhizomatous. Stem very short. Leaves basal, distichous; petiole well developed, base sheathing; leaf blade lanceolate or oblong, with several pairs of longitudinal veins parallel to a distinct midvein. Inflorescence axillary or arising from rhizomes, cymose or reduced to a solitary flower, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Sepals 3, lanceolate. Petals 3, very unequal; middle petal enlarged to form a labellum; lateral petals small, apex often aristate. Stamens 5; filaments short; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed, apex elongate; ovules numerous per locule; placentation axile. Style slender; stigmas 3, laciniate. Fruit a capsule, 3-valved, loculicidal. Seeds numerous, arillate; aril 3-lobed.[12] [more]

Loxomataceae

[more]

Lunulariaceae

Lunularia cruciata or crescent-cup liverwort is a liverwort of order Marchantiales, and the only species in the genus Lunularia and family Lunulariaceae. The name refers to the moon-shaped cups, from Latin luna, moon. [more]

Luzuriagaceae

[more]

Lycopodiaceae

[more]

Lygodiaceae

Lygodium (climbing fern) is a genus of about 40 species of ferns, native to tropical regions across the world, with a few temperate species in eastern Asia and eastern North America. It is the sole genus in the family Lygodiaceae, though included in the family Schizaeaceae by some botanists. [more]

Lythraceae

Lythraceae are a family of flowering plants. It includes about 620 species of mostly herbs, with some shrubs and trees, in 31 genera. Major genera include Cuphea (275 spp.), Lagerstroemia (56), Nesaea (50), Rotala (45), and Lythrum (35). Lythraceae have a worldwide distribution, with most species in the tropics but ranging into temperate climate regions as well. [more]

Maesaceae

[more]

Magnoliaceae

The Magnoliaceae, or Magnolia Family, is a flowering plant family in the order Magnoliales. It consists of two subfamilies: [more]

Majonicaceae

[more]

Makinoaceae

Makinoa crispata is the only species of liverwort in the genus Makinoa and family Makinoaceae. The genus was formerly included in this family, but has been transferred to the family Aneuraceae on the basis of recent cladistic analysis of genetic sequences. [more]

Malesherbiaceae

[more]

Malpighiaceae

Malpighiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales. It comprises approximately 75 genera and 1300 species, all of which are native to the tropics and subtropics. About 80% of the genera and 90% of the species occur in the New World (the Caribbean and the southernmost United States to Argentina) and the rest in the Old World (Africa, Madagascar, and Indomalaya to New Caledonia and the Philippines). [more]

Malvaceae

Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao. The largest genera in terms of number of species include Hibiscus (300 species), Sterculia (250 species), Dombeya (225 species), Pavonia (200 species) and Sida (200 species[]). [more]

Mamiellaceae

In taxonomy, the Mamiellaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Mamiellales. [more]

Marantaceae

The Marantaceae or arrowroot family is a family of flowering plants known for its large starchy rhizomes. It is sometimes called the prayer-plant family. Combined morphological and DNA phylogenetic analyses indicate the family originated in Africa, although this is not the center of its extant diversity. [more]

Marattiaceae

Class Marattiopsida is a group of ferns containing a single order, Marattiales, and family, Marattiaceae. Class Marattiopsida diverged from other ferns very early in their evolutionary history and are quite different from many plants familiar to people in temperate zones. Many of them have massive, fleshy rootstocks and the largest known fronds of any fern. The Marattiaceae is one of two groups of ferns traditionally known as eusporangiate fern, meaning that the sporangium is formed from a group of cells vs the leptosporangium in which there is a single initial cell. There have long been four traditional extant genera (Angiopteris, Christensenia, Danaea and Marattia), but recent genetic/cladistic analysis has determined the genus Marattia to be paraphyletic, and the genus has been split into three genera, the two new ones being Eupodium and Ptisana. This fern group has a long fossil history with many extinct taxa (Psaronius, , Scolecopteris, Eoangiopteris, Qasimia, Marantoidea, Danaeites, Marattiopsis, etc.) [more]

Marcgraviaceae

Marcgraviaceae is a neotropical angiosperm family in the order Ericales. [more]

Marchantiaceae

Marchantiaceae is a family of liverworts in order Marchantiales. [more]

Marsileaceae

The Marsileaceae are a small family of heterosporous aquatic and semi-aquatic ferns, though at first sight they do not physically resemble other ferns. The group is commonly known as the "pepperwort family" or as the "water-clover family" because the leaves of the genus Marsilea superficially resemble the leaves of a four-leaf clover (a flowering plant). Leaves of this fern have sometimes been used to substitute for clover leaves on Saint Patrick's Day. In all, the family contains 3 genera and 50 to 80 species with most of those belonging to Marsilea. [more]

Martyniaceae

Herbs annual or perennial, sometimes with tuberous roots, usually viscid pubescent with uniseriate glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, alternate on upper parts of stem, simple, without stipules. Inflorescences terminal racemes; bracts small, deciduous; bractlets 1 or 2. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Calyx of 5 free or partly connate sepals. Corolla tubular, campanulate, or funnelform, laterally enlarged, bilabiate; lobes 5, imbricate. Stamens 2 or 4, inserted at base of corolla tube, adherent; anthers spreading. Disc annular. Ovary superior, 1-locular; parietal placentas T-shaped in section, false septa usually present; ovules few to numerous. Fruit with a fleshy exocarp soon disintegrating and exposing woody endocarp, with woody appendages including apical horns partly derived from style. Seeds black, rugose.[13] [more]

Mastigophoraceae

[more]

Mastixiaceae

Trees evergreen, resinous. Leaves opposite or alternate, petiolate, estipulate, simple, margin entire or rarely undulate, leathery to thickly papery, often pubescent with unicellular 2-armed trichomes, pinnately veined. Inflorescences paniculate cymes, terminal and axillary. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, 4- or 5-merous. Petals distinct, valvate. Anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing via longitudinal slits; pollen 3-aperturate. Ovary inferior, carpel 1, locule 1; ovule 1, pendulous; disk epigynous, fleshy; style 1, stigma punctiform, unlobed, or lobes slight, 2, 4, or 5. Fruit drupes, fleshy, or hard when dry; endocarp grooved; seed 1, endosperm fleshy; cotyledons 2, leafy; embryo small.[14] [more]

Matoniaceae

[more]

Maundiaceae

[more]

Mayacaceae

Mayaca is a genus of flowering plants, often placed in its own family, the Mayacaceae. In the APG II system of 2003, it is assigned to the Order Poales in the clade commelinids. The Cronquist system, of 1981, also recognised such a family and placed it in the order Commelinales in the subclass Commelinidae. The genus consists of probably fewer than a dozen species. [more]

Medeolaceae

[more]

Medullosaceae

[more]

Medusagynaceae

The jellyfish tree (Medusagyne oppositifolia) is a critically endangered and unusual tree endemic to the island of Mah?, of the Seychelles. It is the sole member of the genus Medusagyne. The plant was thought to be extinct until a few individuals were discovered in the 1970s. [more]

Medusandraceae

Medusandra is a genus of flowering plants in the family Peridiscaceae. It has two species, and Medusandra mpomiana. M. richardsiana is the most common and well known. Both species are native to Cameroon and adjacent countries. [more]

Meesiaceae

[more]

Melanophyllaceae

Melanophylla is a genus of flowering plants endemic to Madagascar. The genus contains seven species of small trees and shrubs. [more]

Melanthiaceae

Melanthiaceae is a family of flowering perennial herbs in the Northern Hemisphere. The family has been recognized by relatively few taxonomists, and the circumscription has varied. Early authors considered these plants to belong to the family Liliaceae, in part because both their sepals and petals closely resemble each other and are often large and showy like the flowers of the Lily Family., while some more recent taxonomists have placed them in a family Trilliaceae. The most authoritative modern treatment, however, the APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), does recognize such a family and places it in the order Liliales, in the clade monocots. As circumscribed by APG II it includes 11-16 genera of the plants that sometimes have been treated as family . [more]

Melastomataceae

The family Melastomataceae (alternatively Melastomaceae) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics (two thirds of the genera are from the New World tropics) comprising some 200 genera and 4500 species. Melastomes are annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees. [more]

Meliaceae

The Meliaceae, or the Mahogany family, is a flowering plant family of mostly trees and shrubs (and a few herbaceous plants, mangroves) in the order Sapindales. [more]

Melianthaceae

The Melianthaceae is a family of flowering plants. The APG II system includes them within the rosid clade. All members of the Melianthaceae proper are trees or shrubs found in tropical and southern Africa. Francoaceae (the Bridal wreaths) is sometimes included in the family, and consists of two monotypic genera found in Chile. [more]

Meliosmaceae

Sabiaceae is a family of flowering plants, native to tropical to warm temperate regions of southern Asia and the Americas. [more]

Memecylaceae

[more]

Menispermaceae

Menispermaceae, the botanical name for a family of flowering plants, has been universally recognized by taxonomists. Tubocurare, a neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in curare, is derived from plants of this family. [more]

Menyanthaceae

Menyanthaceae are a family of aquatic and wetland plants in the order Asterales. There are approximately 60-70 species in five genera distributed worldwide. The simple or compound leaves arise alternately from a creeping rhizome. In the submersed aquatic genus Nymphoides, leaves are floating and support a lax, umbellate or racemose inflorescence. In other genera the inflorescence is erect and consists of one (e.g., Liparophyllum) to many flowers. The sympetalous, insect-pollinated flowers are five-parted and either yellow or white. The petals are ciliate or adorned with lateral wings. Fruit type is a capsule. [more]

Mesoptychiaceae

[more]

Mesostigmataceae

[more]

Mesotaeniaceae

[more]

Metaxyaceae

[more]

Meteoriaceae

[more]

Metteniusaceae

[more]

Metzgeriaceae

Metzgeriaceae is a family of thallose liverworts in the order Metzgeriales. Species may be either monoicous or dioicous. [more]

Metzgeriopsaceae

[more]

Miadesmiaceae

[more]

Micractiniaceae

Micractiniaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Micromonadaceae

[more]

Micromonadophyceae

Microsporaceae

In taxonomy, the Microsporaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlorophyceae. [more]

Microthamniaceae

[more]

Microtheciellaceae

[more]

Mimosaceae

[more]

Misodendraceae

[more]

Mitrastemonaceae

[more]

Mitteniaceae

[more]

Mniaceae

[more]

Molluginaceae

Molluginaceae is a family of flowering plants recognized by several taxonomists. The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), also recognizes such a family and assigns it to the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots. The family comprises about a hundred species, and was previously included in the larger family Aizoaceae. [more]

Moniliporellaceae

[more]

Monimiaceae

Monimiaceae is a family of flowering plants, which includes 150-220 species of shrubs and small trees in 18-25 genera. They are native to the southern hemisphere tropics and subtropics. The largest genus is Tambourissa, with 50 species in Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands, and the Comoros. The type genus, , is endemic to the Macarenes. [more]

Monocleaceae

Monoclea is a genus of two species, of liverworts. It may be regarded as a family, Monocleaceae (of two species) in order Marchantiales. Classifications of the late twentieth century recognized a separate order, Monocleales, but later molecular studies show that it is closely related to the liverwort genus . [more]

Monosoleniaceae

Monosolenium tenerum is a weedy species of liverwort found in east Asia. [more]

Monostromataceae

In taxonomy, the Monostromataceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Ulvales. [more]

Monotaceae

[more]

Monotropaceae

Monotropaceae was a small family of flowering plants under the old Cronquist system of plant classification. It included 10 genera Allotropa, Cheilotheca, Hemitomes, Monotropa, Monotropastrum, , Pityopus, Pleuricospora, Pterospora, Sarcodes. [more]

Montiniaceae

[more]

Moraceae

Moraceae ? often called the mulberry family or fig family ? are a family of flowering plants comprising about 40 genera and over 1000 species. Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less so in temperate climates. The only synapomorphy within Moraceae is presence of laticifers and milky sap in all parenchymatous tissues, but generally useful field characters include two carpels sometimes with one reduced, compound inconspicuous flowers, and compound fruits. Included are well-known plants such as the fig, banyan, breadfruit, mulberry, and Osage-orange. The 'flowers' of Moraceae are often pseudanthia (reduced inflorescences). [more]

Morinaceae

[more]

Moringaceae

Moringa is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Moringaceae. The name is derived from the Tamil word murunggai (????????) or the Malayalam word muringa, both of which refer to M. oleifera. It contains 13 species from tropical and subtropical climates that range in size from tiny herbs to massive trees. [more]

Muntingiaceae

[more]

Musaceae

Musaceae ( or /mju?'ze???.i?/) is a botanical name for a family of flowering plants. The family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to be woody trees. [more]

Mychodeaceae

[more]

Mychodeophyllaceae

[more]

Mycobilimbiaceae

[more]

Myoporaceae

Myoporaceae is a family of plants, found mostly in Australia, which includes the following genera: [more]

Myricaceae

The Myricaceae is a small family of dicotyledonous shrubs and small trees in the order Fagales. There are three genera in the family, although some botanists separate many species from Myrica into a fourth genus Morella. About 35 species are usually accepted in Myrica, one in Canacomyrica and one in Comptonia. [more]

Myriniaceae

[more]

Myristicaceae

Myristicaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. The family has been recognised by most taxonomists; it is sometimes called the "nutmeg family", after its most famous member, Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). [more]

Myrothamnaceae

[more]

Myrsinaceae

Myrsinaceae, or the Myrsine family, is a rather large family from the order Ericales. It consists of 35 genera and about 1000 species. [more]

Myrtaceae

The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of dicotyledon plants, placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, clove, guava, feijoa, allspice, and eucalyptus belong here. All species are woody, with essential oils, and flower parts in multiples of four or five. One notable character of the family is that the phloem is located on both sides of the xylem, not just outside as in most other plants. The leaves are evergreen, alternate to mostly opposite, simple, and usually with an entire (not toothed) margin. The flowers have a base number of five petals, though in several genera the petals are minute or absent. The stamens are usually very conspicuous, brightly colored and numerous. [more]

Mystropetalaceae

[more]

Myuriaceae

[more]

Naccariaceae

[more]

Naiaditaceae

[more]

Najadaceae

Najas is the botanical name of a genus of aquatic plants, first discovered by the African adventurer, . It is cosmopolitan in distribution, totalling a few dozen species. Until 1997, it was rarely placed in the Hydrocharitaceae, and was often taken as constituting (by itself) the family Najadaceae. [more]

Nandinaceae

[more]

Nanobryaceae

[more]

Napoleonaceae

[more]

Napoleonaeaceae

[more]

Nartheciaceae

[more]

Nautococcaceae

[more]

Neckeraceae

Neckeraceae is a moss family in the order Hypnales. [more]

Nelumbonaceae

Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers resembling water lilies, commonly known as lotus. The generic name is derived from the Sinhalese word Nelum. There are only two known living species in the genus. The sacred lotus (N. nucifera) is native to Asia, and is the better known of the two. It is commonly cultivated, and also used in Chinese medicine and cooking. This species is the national flower of Egypt, India and Vietnam. The American lotus (N. lutea) is native to North America and the Caribbean. Horticultural hybrids have been produced between these two geographically separated species. A third, extinct species, N. aureavallis, is known from Eocene fossils from North Dakota, United States. [more]

Nemacladaceae

[more]

Nemastomataceae

[more]

Neotrichocoleaceae

Neotrichocoleaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. It is closely related to the genera Ptilidium and . [more]

Nepenthaceae

The Nepenthes (), popularly known as tropical pitcher plants or monkey cups, are a genus of carnivorous plants in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae. The genus comprises roughly 140 species, numerous natural and many cultivated hybrids. They are mostly liana-forming plants of the Old World tropics, ranging from South China, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines; westward to Madagascar (2 species) and the Seychelles (1); southward to Australia (3) and New Caledonia (1); and northward to India (1) and Sri Lanka (1). The greatest diversity occurs on Borneo and Sumatra with many endemic species. Many are plants of hot humid lowland areas, but the majority are tropical montane plants, receiving warm days but cool to cold humid nights year round. A few are considered tropical alpine with cool days and nights near freezing. The name monkey cups refers to the fact that monkeys have been observed drinking rainwater from these plants. [more]

Neuradaceae

[more]

Nitrariaceae

[more]

Nizymeniaceae

[more]

Nolinaceae

[more]

Nothofagaceae

[more]

Notothyladaceae

The Notothyladaceae is the only family of hornworts in the order Notothyladales. [more]

Nupharaceae

[more]

Nyctaginaceae

Nyctaginaceae, the Four O'Clock Family, is a family of around 33 genera and 290 species of flowering plants, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, with a few representatives in temperate regions. The family has a unique fruit type, called an "anthocarp", and many genera have extremely large (>100 ?m) pollen grains. [more]

Nymphaeaceae

Nymphaeaceae ( or /?n?mfi?'e?si.i?/) is a family of flowering plants. Members of this family are commonly called water lilies and live in freshwater areas in temperate and tropical climates around the world. The family contains eight genera. There are about 70 species of water lilies around the world. The genus Nymphaea contains about 35 species across the Northern Hemisphere. The genus Victoria contains two species of giant water lilies and can be found in South America. Water lilies are rooted in soil in bodies of water, with leaves and flowers floating on the water surface. The leaves are round, with a radial notch in Nymphaea and Nuphar, but fully circular in Victoria. [more]

Nyssaceae

Nyssaceae is a small family of flowering trees closely related to and often included within the dogwood family (Cornaceae). Nyssaceae commonly includes the following genera: [more]

Ochnaceae

The family Ochnaceae, or wild plane family, comprises mainly trees or shrubs, and more rarely herbaceous plants. Species of the Ochnaceae are found from subtropical to tropical regions. They are best represented in South America. The family has about 53 genera and 600 species. [more]

Octoknemaceae

[more]

Oedipodiaceae

Oedipodium is the only genus of moss in the family Oedipodiaceae; it contains the single species Oedipodium griffithianum. This species is distributed in cooler climates of Eurasia, North and South America, and islands in the northern Atlantic. [more]

Oedogoniaceae

[more]

Oftiaceae

[more]

Olacaceae

Olacaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Santalales. They are woody plants, native throughout the tropical regions of the world. [more]

Oleaceae

[more]

Oleandraceae

Oleandraceae is a family of ferns consisting of three genera containing approximately 60 species. Most are erect ground ferns or scandent epiphytes that start from the ground. [more]

Oliniaceae

[more]

Onagraceae

Onagraceae, also known as the Willowherb family or Evening Primrose family, are a family of flowering plants. The family includes about 640-650 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees in 20-24 genera. The family is widespread, on every continent from boreal to tropical regions. [more]

Oncothecaceae

[more]

Onocleaceae

Onocleaceae is a small family of terrestrial ferns. There are four genera of onocleoids: Matteuccia, Onoclea, Onocleopsis, and Pentarhizidium, consisting of five species largely in north temperate climes. [more]

Oocystaceae

Oocystaceae is a family of algae, in the order Oocystales. [more]

Ophioglossaceae

Ophioglossaceae, the Adder's tongue family, is a family of ferns, currently thought to be most closely related to Psilotaceae, the two together comprising the class Psilotopsida as the sibling group to the rest of the ferns. The Ophioglossaceae is one of two groups of ferns traditionally known as eusporangiate fern. The number of genera included in the family varies between different authors' treatments, and most conservatively the family is treated as containing four genera, Ophioglossum, Botrychium, Helminthostachys, and Mankyua (placed in two to four separate families in other treatments). A broad definition of the family and its genera have been taken in several recent treatments (e.g., Wagner 1990, Smith et al. 2006, and in the Flora of North America). A notable exception is the classification of Kato (1987), who advocated the division of Botrychium into four genera: Botrychium s.s., Sceptridium, Japanobotrychium, and Botrypus. [more]

Ophiopogonaceae

[more]

Opiliaceae

Opiliaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. It consists of perhaps a dozen genera, totalling several dozen species of tropical woody plants. Several genera contain parasitic species. The biggest genus, in number of species and in stature of the individual plants, is Agonandra, the only American genus. Except for the Australian genus Anthobolus (previously placed in Santalaceae), all other members of the family are found in the Old World tropics, where they are widespread. [more]

Orchidaceae

The Orchidaceae, commonly referred to as the orchid family, is a morphologically diverse and widespread family of monocots in the order Asparagales. Along with the Asteraceae, it is one of the two largest families of flowering plants, with between 21,950 and 26,049 currently accepted species, found in 880 genera. Selecting which of the two families is larger remains elusive because of the difficulties associated with putting hard species numbers on such enormous groups. Regardless, the number of orchid species equals more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species. It also encompasses about 6?11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species). [more]

Orobanchaceae

Orobanchaceae, the broomrape family, is a family of flowering plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species. Many of these genera were formerly included in the family Scrophulariaceae sensu lato. Together they are a monophyletic group, forming a distinct family. [more]

Orthorrhynchiaceae

[more]

Orthotrichaceae

Orthotrichaceae is the only family of mosses in order Orthotrichales. Many species in the family are epiphytic. [more]

Osmundaceae

The Osmundaceae (Royal Fern Family) is a family of four genera and 15-25 species. It is the only fern family of the order Osmundales; an order in the class Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) or in some classifications the only order in the class Osmundopsida. This is an ancient (known from the Upper Permian) and fairly isolated group that is often known as the "flowering ferns" because of the striking aspect of the ripe sporangia in Osmunda and Osmundastrum. In these genera the sporangia are borne naked on non-laminar pinnules, while Todea and Leptopteris bear sporangia naked on laminar pinnules. Ferns in this family are larger than most other ferns. [more]

Ostreobiaceae

In taxonomy, the Ostreobiaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Oxalidaceae

The Oxalidaceae, or wood sorrel family, are a small family of eight genera of herbaceous plants, shrubs and small trees, with the great majority of the 900 species in the genus Oxalis (wood sorrels). Members of this family typically have divided leaves, the leaflets showing "sleep movements", spreading open in light and closing in darkness. [more]

Oxymitraceae

Oxymitra is the only genus in the liverwort family Oxymitraceae, in order Marchantiales. The genus includes two or three species. [more]

Paeoniaceae

[more]

Pallavicinaceae

[more]

Pallaviciniaceae

Pallaviciniaceae is a widely-distributed family of liverworts in the order Metzgeriales. All species are thallose, typically organized as a thick central costa (midvein), each side with a broad wing of tissue one cell in thickness. All species are dioicous. The greatest diversity is in Australasia, with some species endemic to that region, though species belonging to the family may be found on every continent except Antarctica. [more]

Palmae

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Palmariaceae

[more]

Palmellaceae

In taxonomy, the Palmellaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Tetrasporales. [more]

Palmellopsidaceae

[more]

Pandaceae

[more]

Pandanaceae

Pandanaceae is a family of flowering plants native to the tropics of the Old World. Such a family has been widely recognized by taxonomists. Pandanaceae are trees or climbing or scrambling shrubs distributed in the Old World tropics and are adapted from sea level in salted beaches to mountain cloud forest, and riverine forest habitat. The fruit is a drupe. [more]

Papaveraceae

Papaveraceae, informally known as the poppy family, are an economically important family of 44 genera and approximately 770 species of flowering plants in the order Ranunculales. The family is cosmopolitan, occurring in temperate and subtropical climates, but almost unknown in the tropics. Most are herbaceous plants, but a few are shrubs and small trees. [more]

Papilionaceae

Faboideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. One acceptable alternative name for the subfamily is Papilionoideae. [more]

Paracryphiaceae

[more]

Parkeriaceae

Ceratopteridaceae is the family name for the clade that is now known to include the two genera Ceratopteris and Acrostichum. [more]

Parnassiaceae

[more]

Passifloraceae

Passifloraceae is a family of flowering plants, containing about 530 species classified in around 27 genera. They include trees, shrubs, lianas and climbing plants, and are mostly found in tropical regions. [more]

Pedaliaceae

Pedaliaceae (pedalium family or sesame family) is a flowering plant family classified in the order Scrophulariales in the Cronquist system and Lamiales in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system. Cronquist included the family Martyniaceae in Pedaliaceae, but phylogenetic studies have shown that the two families are not closely related and they are maintained as separate by the APG. Both families are characterized by having mucilaginous hairs, which often give the stems and leaves a slimy or clammy feel, and often have fruits with hooks or horns. [more]

Pedinomonadaceae

In taxonomy, the Pedinomonadaceae are a family of algae. They are small (less than 3 ?m) single-celled algae. Each cell has a single flagellum. It has been proposed to be either in the Mamiellales or the Ulvophyceae, but it has not been studied enough to confidently place it. [more]

Peganaceae

[more]

Pelliaceae

Pelliaceae is a family of liverworts with only two genera: Pellia (in the temperate Northern Hemisphere) and Noteroclada (in the Southern Hemisphere). The two genera are easily distinguished, not only because they occur in completely separate regions of the world, but because Noteroclada has a leafy appearance, while Pellia is more clearly thallose. [more]

Pellicieraceae

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Peltaspermaceae

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Penaeaceae

[more]

Peniaceae

The Peniaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Desmidiales (desmids). [more]

Pentadiplandraceae

[more]

Pentaphragmataceae

[more]

Pentaphylacaceae

Shrubs or trees, evergreen. Stipules persistent. Leaves simple, alternate. Flowers axillary, bisexual, actinomorphic, arranged into pseudospikes or pseudoracemes along branchlets below apex. Bracteoles 2, persistent, close to calyx. Sepals 5, persistent, unequal, imbricate. Petals 5, white, imbricate in bud, basally slightly connate. Stamens 5, inflexed in bud, alternate with petals, shorter than petals; anthers small, 2-celled, dehiscing by apical pores. Ovary superior, 5-loculed; ovules 2 per locule, collateral, pendulous from locule apex; style simple, apically 5-lobed. Capsule 5-loculed, loculicidal. Seeds 2 per locule; embryo U-shaped; endosperm very thin.[15] [more]

Pentastemonaceae

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Penthoraceae

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Peperomiaceae

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Peridiscaceae

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Personiellaceae

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Perssoniellaceae

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Petermanniaceae

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Petiveriaceae

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Petrocelidaceae

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Petrosaviaceae

[more]

Peyssonneliaceae

[more]

Phacelocarpaceae

[more]

Phacotaceae

In taxonomy, the Phacotaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlamydomonadales. [more]

Phaeophilaceae

In taxonomy, the Phaeophilaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Phaeophilales. [more]

Phellinaceae

[more]

Philesiaceae

[more]

Philydraceae

Philydraceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. Such a family has not been recognized by many taxonomists. [more]

Phormiaceae

[more]

Phragmonemataceae

[more]

Phrymaceae

Phrymaceae (Schauer 1847), also known as the Lopseed family, is a small plant family in the order Lamiales. It now consists of about 190 species, distributed worldwide but with the majority in western North America (about 130 species) and Australia (about 30 species). [more]

Phycolepidoziaceae

Phycolepidozia exigua is the only species of liverwort in the genus Phycolepidozia and family Phycolepidoziaceae. It is endemic to Dominica, where it is critically endangered. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. [more]

Phyllocladaceae

Phyllocladus is a small genus of conifers, now usually treated in the family Podocarpaceae. They are morphologically very distinct from the other genera in that family, and some botanists treat them in a family of their own, the Phyllocladaceae. One molecular phylogenetic analysis found Phyllocladus to be sister to Podocarpus sensu stricto. Another was equivocal on its position relative to Podocarpaceae s.s.. [more]

Phyllodrepaniaceae

[more]

Phyllogoniaceae

[more]

Phyllonomaceae

[more]

Phyllophoraceae

[more]

Phyllothalliaceae

Phyllothallia is a small genus of liverworts of the Southern Hemisphere. It is classified in order Metzgeriales and is the only member of the family Phyllothalliaceae within that order. Unlike most members of the Metzgeriales, Phyllothallia has a leafy appearance. The genus has a disjunct distribution, with the species found in New Zealand while the other species in the genus, Phyllothallia fuegiana, occurs in Tierra del Fuego. [more]

Physenaceae

[more]

Physostomaceae

[more]

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolaccaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been almost universally recognized by taxonomists, although its circumscription has varied. It is also known as the Pokeweed family. [more]

Pihiellaceae

[more]

Pilotrichaceae

[more]

Pinaceae

Pinaceae (the pine family) are trees or shrubs, including many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces. The family is included in the order Pinales, formerly known as Coniferales. Pinaceae are supported as monophyletic by its protein-type sieve cell plastids, pattern of proembryogeny, and lack of bioflavonoids. They are the largest extant conifer family in species diversity, with between 220-250 species (depending on taxonomic opinion) in 11 genera, and the second-largest (after Cupressaceae) in geographical range, found in most of the Northern Hemisphere with the majority of the species in temperate climates but ranging from sub arctic to tropical. The family often forms the dominant component of boreal, coastal and montane forests. One species just crosses the equator in southeast Asia. Major centres of diversity are found in the mountains of southwest China, Mexico, central Japan and California. [more]

Pinakodendraceae

[more]

Piperaceae

The Piperaceae, also known as the pepper family, is a large family of flowering plants. The group contains roughly 3,610 currently accepted species in five genera. The vast majority of peppers can be found within the two main genera: Piper (2000 species) and Peperomia (1600 species). [more]

Pistiaceae

[more]

Pittosporaceae

Pittosporaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family includes approximately 200 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas in 9-10 genera. The species of Pittosporaceae range from tropical to temperate climates of the Afrotropic, Indomalaya, Oceania, and Australasia ecozones. [more]

Plagiochilaceae

Plagiochilaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. There may be anywhere from 500 to 1300 species, most of them from the tropics, but the exact number is still under revision. The family also has a wide distribution in temperate and arctic areas. [more]

Plagiogyriaceae

Plagiogyria is a genus of fern in family Plagiogyriaceae. Ferns of this genus present two kind of fronds, the fertile ones longer than the sterile. These ferns are found on forest soils in mountainous areas of tropical and subtropical regions, mostly in Asia - but also in the Americas. [more]

Plagiopteraceae

[more]

Plagiotheciaceae

[more]

Plantaginaceae

Plantaginaceae Juss. or plantain family, are a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales. The type genus is Plantago L.. [more]

Platanaceae

Platanaceae is a family of flowering plants. It has been recognized by almost all taxonomists, and is sometimes called the "plane-tree family". The plane-tree is referenced in Pliny the Younger's letter to Domitius Apollinaris as part of his description of his Tuscan Villa located somewhere in Tuscany in the 1st Century. [more]

Platymonadaceae

[more]

Pleurastraceae

[more]

Pleuromeiaceae

[more]

Pleurophascaceae

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Pleurostigmataceae

[more]

Pleuroziaceae

Pleurozia is the only genus of liverworts in the family Pleuroziaceae, which is classified within the order Jungermanniales. The genus includes eleven species, and as a whole is both physically distinctive and widely distributed. The lower leaf lobes of Pleurozia species are fused, forming a closed water sac covered by a movable lid similar in structure to those of the angiosperm genus Utricularia. These sacs were assumed to play a role in water storage, but a 2005 study on found that the sacs attract and trap ciliates, much in the same way as Utricularia. Observations of plants in situ also revealed a large number of trapped prey within the sacs, suggesting that the species in this genus obtain some benefit from a carnivorous habit. After Colura, this was the second report of zoophagy among the liverworts. [more]

Pleuroziopsaceae

[more]

Pleuroziopsidaceae

[more]

Plocamiaceae

[more]

Plocospermataceae

[more]

Plumbaginaceae

[more]

Poaceae

The Poaceae (also known as the Gramineae) is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocot flowering plants. Members of this family are commonly called (land) grasses, although the term (land) "grass" is also applied to plants that are not in the Poaceae lineage, including the rushes (Juncaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). As for the seagrasses, they all belong to the Alismatales, a different monocot order altogether. This broad and general use of the word "grass" has led to plants of the Poaceae often being called "true grasses". With over 10,025 currently accepted species, the Poaceae represent the fifth largest plant family. Only the Orchidaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rubiaceae have more species. [more]

Podoaceae

[more]

Podocarpaceae

Podocarpaceae is a large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, comprising about 156 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. It contains 19 genera if Phyllocladus is included and if Manoao and Sundacarpus are recognized. [more]

Podophyllaceae

[more]

Podostemaceae

The Podostemaceae (riverweed family) is a family in the order Malpighiales. It comprises about 50 genera and 250 species of more or less thalloid aquatic herbs. [more]

Polemoniaceae

Polemoniaceae (Jacob's-ladder or phlox family) are a family of about 25 genera with 270-400 species of annual and perennial plants, native to the Northern Hemisphere and South America, with the center of diversity in western North America, especially in California. [more]

Polyblepharidaceae

[more]

Polygalaceae

The Polygalaceae (syn. Diclidantheraceae, Moutabeaceae, Xanthophyllaceae) or Milkwort family is made up of flowering plants in the order Fabales. They have a near-cosmopolitan range, with about 17 genera and 900?1,000 species of herbs, shrubs and trees. Over half of the species are in one genus, Polygala, the milkworts. [more]

Polygonaceae

Polygonaceae is a family of flowering plants known informally as the "knotweed family" or "smartweed family"? "buckwheat family" in the United States. The name is based on the genus Polygonum and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum. The name refers to the many swollen nodes that the stems of some species have. It is derived from Greek; poly means many and goni means knee or joint. [more]

Polyidaceae

[more]

Polyideaceae

[more]

Polyphysaceae

The Polyphysaceae is a taxonomic family of green algae, one of two families in the order Dasycladales. [more]

Polypodiaceae

Polypodiaceae is a family of polypod ferns, which includes more than 60 genera divided into several tribes and containing around 1,000 species. Nearly all are epiphytes, but some are terrestrial. [more]

Polytrichaceae

The Polytrichaceae is a common family of mosses. Members of this family tend to be larger than other mosses with a thickened central stem and a rhizome. The leaves have a midrib that bears lamellae on the upper surface. Species in this group are dioicous. Another characteristic that identifies them is that they have from 32 to 64 peristome teeth in their sporangium. [more]

Pontederiaceae

Pontederiaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. [more]

Porellaceae

Porellaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. It includes two genera: , and Porella. [more]

Porocharaceae

[more]

Porphyridiaceae

[more]

Portulacaceae

Portulacaceae are a family of flowering plants, comprising about 20 genera with about 500 species, ranging from herbaceous plants to shrubs. The family has been recognised by most taxonomists, and is also known as the purslane family; it has a cosmopolitan distribution, with the highest diversity in semi-arid regions of the Southern Hemisphere in Africa, Australia, and South America, but with a few species also extending north into Arctic regions. The family is very similar to the Caryophyllaceae differing in the calyx which has only two sepals. [more]

Posidoniaceae

Posidonia is a genus of flowering plants. It contains two to nine species of marine plants ("seagrass"), found in the seas of the Mediterranean and around the south coast of Australia. [more]

Potamogetonaceae

The Potamogetonaceae, commonly referred to as the pondweed family, is an aquatic family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. There are roughly 120 species spread across six genera in the Potamagetonaceae. The largest genus in the family by far is Potamogeton, which contains about 100 species. [more]

Potonieaceae

[more]

Pottiaceae

Pottiaceae is a family of mosses. It forms the most numerous moss family known, containing nearly 1500 species or more than 10% of the 10,000 to 15,000 moss species known. [more]

Pottingeriaceae

[more]

Prasiolaceae

In taxonomy, the Prasiolaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Prasiolales. [more]

Primulaceae

Primulaceae is a family of flowering plants with about 24 genera, including some favorite garden plants and wildflowers. It is also known as the primrose family. [more]

Prionodontaceae

[more]

Proteaceae

Proteaceae is a family of flowering plants distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The family comprises about 80 genera with about 1600 species. Together with the Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae, they make up the order Proteales. Well known genera include Protea, Banksia, Embothrium, Grevillea, Hakea, Dryandra and Macadamia. Species such as the New South Wales Waratah (Telopea speciosissima), King Protea (Protea cynaroides), and various species of Banksia, Grevillea, and Leucadendron are popular cut flowers, while the nuts of Macadamia integrifolia are widely commercially grown and consumed. [more]

Protolepidodendraceae

[more]

Protosiphonaceae

[more]

Pseudoanemoniaceae

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Pseudoborniaceae

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Pseudocodiaceae

In taxonomy, the Pseudocodiaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Pseudoditrichaceae

[more]

Pseudolepicoleaceae

Pseudolepicoleaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. [more]

Pseudoudoteaceae

[more]

Psilosiphonaceae

[more]

Psilotaceae

Psilotaceae is a family of fern-like plants (in order Psilotales) consisting of two genera, Psilotum and Tmesipteris. The two genera are very different and in the past Tmesipteris has been placed in its own family, Tmesipteridaceae, but most classifications continue to treat it in Psilotaceae. The relationships of Psilotaceae have been unclear, in part because the plants lack roots or true leaves, but recent molecular systematic studies suggest a relationship to the fern family Ophioglossaceae. [more]

Psiloxylaceae

[more]

Ptaeroxylaceae

[more]

Pteridaceae

Pteridaceae is a large family of ferns in the order Pteridales. Members of the family have creeping or erect rhizomes and are mostly terrestrial or epipetric (growing on rock). The leaves are almost always compound and have linear sori that are typically on the margins of the leaves and lack a true indusium, typically being protected by a false indusium formed from the reflexed margin of the leaf. The family includes four groups of genera that are sometimes recognized as separate families: the adiantoid, cheilanthoid, pteroid, and hemionitidoid ferns. Relationships among these groups remain unclear, and although some recent genetic analyses of the Pteridales suggest that neither the family Pteridaceae nor the major groups within it are all monophyletic, as yet these analyses are insufficiently comprehensive and robust to provide good support for a revision of the order at the family level. [more]

Pteridophyllaceae

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Pterigynandraceae

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Pterobryaceae

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Pterocladiophilaceae

[more]

Pterosphaeridiaceae

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Pterostemonaceae

[more]

Ptilidiaceae

Ptilidium is a genus of liverwort, and is the only genus in family Ptilidiaceae. It includes only three species: Ptilidium californicum, , and Ptilidium pulcherrimum. The genus is distributed throughout the arctic and subarctic, with disjunct populations in New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego. Molecular analysis suggests that the genus has few close relatives and diverged from other leafy liverworts early in their evolution. [more]

Ptychomitriaceae

Plants small to robust, tufted or gregarious or cespitose, yellowish green to blackish. Stems erect or repent, simple or forked; central strand present; rhizoids reddish brown, inconspicuous; axillary hairs several per axil, with 2-3 short proximal cells and 5-7 long distal cells. Leaves erect to crispate or circinate when dry, ascending when wet, linear to oblong-lanceolate; margins entire to coarsely serrate, thickened distally; costa single, strong; medial cells isodiametric, in longitudinal files, 1-stratose, or 2-stratose in patches, smooth or slightly papillose. Specialized asexual reproduction rare, by axillary 1-seriate or branched gemmae. Sexual condition autoicous. Perigonia gemmiform, axillary on short naked stalks. Perichaetia terminal but quickly overtopped by innovations; leaves few, short. Seta single or several from a perichaetium, smooth, straight or flexuous. Capsule erect, exserted, brown, ovoid to cylindric, smooth or wrinkled when dry; stomata scarce, proximal on capsule, phaneropore; annulus revoluble; operculum slenderly rostrate; peristome single, teeth 16, short and broad to long and slender, smooth or densely papillose, mostly irregularly divided into 2-3 slender segments beyond the base. Calyptra mostly mitrate, lobed proximally, often deeply so, naked, smooth or plicate. Spores spheric.[16] [more]

Ptychomniaceae

[more]

Punicaceae

Punica is a small genus of fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small trees. Its best known species is the pomegranate (Punica granatum). The only other species in the genus, the Socotra pomegranate (Punica protopunica), is endemic on the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. [more]

Pycnococcaceae

In taxonomy, the Pycnococcaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Pseudoscourfieldiales. The defining features of this family include the single invagination of the pyrenoid where the mitochondrial membrane fits into it and the "decapore" - a ring of 10 pores through the thick cell wall. [more]

Pyramimonadaceae

[more]

Pyrolaceae

Pyrolaceae was a small family of flowering plants under the old Cronquist system of plant classification. It included the four genera Chimaphila, Moneses, Orthilia, and Pyrola, and sometimes also the eight genera formerly usually placed in the family Monotropaceae. [more]

Quiinaceae

Quiinaceae Engl. is a neotropical family of flowering plants in the Malpighiales, consisting of about 50 species in 4 genera (, Lacunaria, Quiina, Touroulia). The APG III system of flowering plant classification does not recognize such a family, instead including these genera in the Ochnaceae family. [more]

Racopilaceae

[more]

Radiococcaceae

Radiococcaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Radiofilaceae

[more]

Radulaceae

Radula is a genus of liverwort, and is the only genus in family Radulaceae. It contains the following species (but this list could be incomplete): [more]

Rafflesiaceae

Rafflesiaceae is a family of parasitic plants found in east and southeast Asia, including Rafflesia arnoldii, the plant with the largest flower of all plants. The plants are endoparasites of vines in the genus Tetrastigma (Vitaceae) and lack stems, leaves, roots, and any photosynthetic tissue. Only the flowers emerge from the roots or lower stems of the host plants. [more]

Ranunculaceae

[more]

Ranzaniaceae

[more]

Rapateaceae

[more]

Reaumuriaceae

[more]

Regmatodontaceae

[more]

Resedaceae

Resedaceae is a family of generally herbaceous dicotyledonous plants comprising some 70 species in six genera: [more]

Restionaceae

Restionaceae, also called restiads, is the botanical name for a family of rush-like flowering plants native to the Southern Hemisphere. The Restionaceae likely originated during the Cretaceous period, based on evidence from fossil pollen. [more]

Retziaceae

[more]

Rhabdodendraceae

[more]

Rhabdoniaceae

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Rhabdoweisiaceae

[more]

Rhachitheciaceae

Plants small, erect, gregarious. Stems with [or without] central strand. Leaves spathulate, [ovate, oblong, lingulate,] erect spreading when moist, crisped when dry, acute, 1-costate, costa vanishing before apex [minutely excurrent]; laminal cells smooth [papillose], thin-walled, rectangular in proximal half, short-rectangular to isodiametric distally; alar cells not differentiated. Specialized asexual reproduction present [or absent] as multicellular gemmae, 1- to 2-seriate, to 7 cells in length, borne on surface of leaves. Sexual condition autoicous; perichaetial leaves differentiated [or not]. [Sporophytes solitary in perichaetia. Seta erect, straight or twisted when dry, curved when moist. Capsule immersed to exserted, ribbed, rarely smooth; annulus differentiated or not; endostome teeth fused or not; inner peristomial layer of only 8 or 16 cells, or endostome absent. Calyptra cucullate, smooth or papillose, glabrous. Spores striate, pitted or papillose].[17] [more]

Rhacitheciaceae

[more]

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae, the Buckthorn family, is a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs and some vines. [more]

Rhizogoniaceae

[more]

Rhizogranulochloridaceae

[more]

Rhizophoraceae

Rhizophoraceae is a family constituted by tropical or subtropical flowering plants. Among the better known members are mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora. There are around 149 species distributed in sixteen genera, most native to the Old World. [more]

Rhizophyllidaceae

[more]

Rhizounochloridaceae

[more]

Rhodochaetaceae

[more]

Rhodochytriaceae

[more]

Rhodogorgonaceae

[more]

Rhodomelaceae

Rhodomelaceae is estimated to be the largest red algae family, with about 125 genera and over 700 species. [more]

Rhodophysemataceae

[more]

Rhodothamniellaceae

[more]

Rhodymeniaceae

[more]

Rhoipteleaceae

Rhoiptelea is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the Juglandaceae family. It contains a single species, Rhoiptelea chiliantha, commonly known as the horsetail tree. This genus was previously recognized in its own family, Rhoipteleaceae, but the APG III system of 2009 placed it in the Juglandaceae family. Rhoiptelea chiliantha is native to southwest China and north Vietnam and lives at the elevation of 700-1600m in mountainous areas. The trees are wind-pollinated, the flowers arranged in large sagged panicles usually 32 cm long like horse tails, and the fruit is a small botanical nut with rounded wings. The leaves are pinnately compound and papery. The trees are usually 17 m high and with 40 cm diameter. It is a protected species of China. [more]

Rhynchocalycaceae

Rhynchocalyx lawsonioides is a small flowering tree, the sole species of family Rhynchocalycaceae. It is endemic to the KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic ecoregion of the Natal and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. [more]

Rhynchothecaceae

[more]

Rhyniaceae

[more]

Rhytidiaceae

[more]

Ricciaceae

Ricciaceae is a family of liverworts in order Marchantiales, with two genera. [more]

Riellaceae

Riella is the only genus in the liverwort family Riellaceae, and includes about eighteen species. Plants in the genus are small and grow submerged in shallow temporary pools. Although the genus is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, locating populations is often difficult. Its occurrence is sporadic and local, and the tiny plants are ephemeral. The ornamented spores remain viable for several years, allowing the plants to survive annual drying of their habitat. The plants are easily grown in laboratory cultures. [more]

Rimulariaceae

[more]

Ripogonaceae

[more]

Rissoellaceae

[more]

Roridulaceae

[more]

Rosaceae

Rosaceae (the rose family) are a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including about 2830 species in 95 genera. The name is derived from the type genus Rosa. Among the largest genera are Alchemilla (270), Sorbus (260), Crataegus (260), Cotoneaster (260), and Rubus (250). The largest genus by far is Prunus (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds) with about 430 species. However, all of these numbers should be seen as underestimates - much taxonomic work is left to be done here. [more]

Rousseaceae

[more]

Rubiaceae

[more]

Rufloriaceae

[more]

Ruppiaceae

Ruppia, also known as the ditch grasses, is the only genus in the family Ruppiaceae. Such a family has been recognized by relatively few taxonomists. The genus name was given in honour of Heinrich Bernhard Rupp, a German botanist (1688-1719). [more]

Ruscaceae

[more]

Rutaceae

Rutaceae, commonly known as the rue or citrus family, is a family of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales. [more]

Rutenbergiaceae

[more]

Sabiaceae

Sabiaceae is a family of flowering plants, native to tropical to warm temperate regions of southern Asia and the Americas. [more]

Saccifoliaceae

[more]

Saccolomataceae

[more]

Salicaceae

Salicaceae or the willow family (although they contain more than just the willow genus, Salix) are a family of flowering plants. Recent genetic studies summarized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) has greatly expanded the circumscription of the family to contain 55 genera. [more]

Salvadoraceae

Salvadoraceae is a family in the plant order Brassicales, comprising 3 genera totalling around 12 species. They occur in Africa, including Madagascar; South East Asia; and have also been found on Java, suggesting they are probably found in much of Malesia. They are often found in hot, dry areas. [more]

Salviniaceae

[more]

Sambucaceae

[more]

Santalaceae

Santalaceae is a widely distributed family of flowering plants which, like other members of Santalales, are partially parasitic on other plants. Modern treatments of the Santalaceae include the family Viscaceae (mistletoes), previously considered distinct. [more]

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of flowering plants in the order Sapindales. There are about 140?150 genera with 1400?2000 species, including maple, horse chestnut and lychee. [more]

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae is a family of flowering plants, belonging to order Ericales. The family includes approximately 800 species of evergreen trees and shrubs in approximately 65 genera (35-75, depending on generic definition). Distribution is pantropical. [more]

Sarcodiaceae

[more]

Sarcolaenaceae

The Sarcolaenaceae are a family of flowering plants endemic to Madagascar. The family includes 40 species of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs in ten genera. [more]

Sarcomeniaceae

[more]

Sarcophytaceae

[more]

Sargentodoxaceae

[more]

Sarraceniaceae

Sarraceniaceae is a family of pitcher plants (along with Nepenthaceae), belonging to order Ericales (previously Nepenthales). [more]

Saururaceae

Saururaceae is a plant family comprising four genera and seven species of herbaceous flowering plants native to eastern and southern Asia and North America. The family has been recognised by most taxonomists, and is sometimes known as the "lizard's-tail family". The APG II system (2003; unchanged from the 1998 APG system) assigned it to the order Piperales in the clade magnoliids. [more]

Sauvagesiaceae

[more]

Sawdoniaceae

[more]

Saxifragaceae

Saxifragaceae is a plant family with about 460 known species in 36 genera. In Europe there are 12 genera. [more]

Scapaniaceae

Scapaniaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. The family has been extended to include the former family Lophoziaceae. [more]

Scenedesmaceae

A family of green algae in the order chlorococcales. Scenedesmus algae are commonly found in freshwater plankton. [more]

Schaereriaceae

[more]

Scheuchzeriaceae

Scheuchzeria palustris (Rannoch-rush, pod grass, or Scheuchzeria), is a flowering plant, the only species in the genus Scheuchzeria, itself the only genus in the family Scheuchzeriaceae. In the APG II system this is placed in the order Alismatales of the monocots. [more]

Schisandraceae

Schisandraceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, at least for the past several decades. Before that, the plants concerned were assigned to family Magnoliaceae. [more]

Schistochilaceae

Schistochilaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. [more]

Schistostegaceae

Schistostega pennata, also called goblin's gold or luminous moss or luminescent moss , is a moss known for its glowing appearance in dark places. It is the only member of the family Schistosteagaceae. The moss's greenish-gold glowing appearance is due to the clear, spherical cells in the protonema that can collect even the faintest light like lenses, and the chloroplasts nearby in turn give off the greenish glow from the reflected light. [more]

Schizaeaceae

Schizaeaceae is a family of 35 to 40 species of small ferns, chiefly tropical. Genera historically treated as belonging to this family include Anemia, Lygodium, and Mohria. However, striking differences in morphology and chromosome numbers, as well as known fossil history, indicate that these are best segregated into different families. [more]

Schizogoniaceae

[more]

Schizomeridaceae

In taxonomy, the Schizomeridaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chaetophorales. [more]

Schizymeniaceae

[more]

Sciadopityaceae

The Koyamaki (Sciadopitys verticillata), or Japanese Umbrella-pine, is a unique conifer endemic to Japan. It is the sole member of the family Sciadopityaceae and genus Sciadopitys, a living fossil with no close relatives, and known in the fossil record for about 230 million years. [more]

Scinaiaceae

[more]

Sclerophylacaceae

[more]

Scoliopaceae

[more]

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, are a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia L.. [more]

Scybaliaceae

[more]

Scyphostegiaceae

[more]

Scytopetalaceae

[more]

Sebdeniaceae

[more]

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella is a genus of plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses. Many workers still place the Selaginellales in the class Lycopodiopsida (often misconstructed as "Lycopsida"). This group of plants has for years been included in what, for convenience, was called "fern allies". S. moellendorffii is an important model organism, and its genome was sequenced by the United States Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. [more]

Seletonellaceae

[more]

Seligeriaceae

Seligeriaceae is a family of mosses in the subclass Dicranidae. [more]

Sematophyllaceae

[more]

Serpotortellaceae

[more]

Sesuviaceae

[more]

Setchellanthaceae

[more]

Sigillariaceae

[more]

Sigillariostrobaceae

[more]

Simaroubaceae

The Simaroubaceae is a small, mostly tropical, family in the order Sapindales. In recent decades it has been subject to much taxonomic debate, with several small families being split off. A molecular phylogeny of the family was published in 2007, greatly clarifying relationships within the family. [more]

Simmondsiaceae

Simmondsiaceae or the Jojoba Family is a family of flowering plants. The family is not recognized by all taxonomic systems, the single species, Simmondsia chinensis, often being treated as belonging to family Buxaceae. [more]

Sinopteridaceae

Pteridaceae is a large family of ferns in the order Pteridales. Members of the family have creeping or erect rhizomes and are mostly terrestrial or epipetric (growing on rock). The leaves are almost always compound and have linear sori that are typically on the margins of the leaves and lack a true indusium, typically being protected by a false indusium formed from the reflexed margin of the leaf. The family includes four groups of genera that are sometimes recognized as separate families: the adiantoid, cheilanthoid, pteroid, and hemionitidoid ferns. Relationships among these groups remain unclear, and although some recent genetic analyses of the Pteridales suggest that neither the family Pteridaceae nor the major groups within it are all monophyletic, as yet these analyses are insufficiently comprehensive and robust to provide good support for a revision of the order at the family level. [more]

Siphonocladaceae

In taxonomy, the Siphonocladaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Cladophorales. [more]

Smilacaceae

Smilacaceae, the greenbrier family, is a family of flowering plants. Up to some decades ago the genera now included in family Smilacaceae were often assigned to a more broadly defined family Liliaceae, but for the past twenty to thirty years most botanists have accepted Smilacaceae as a distinct family. It is considered that the two families evolved[] around 55 millions years ago during the Early Paleogene possibly near the boundary between Paleocene and Eocene. One characteristic that distinguishes Smilacaceae from most of the other members of the Liliaceae-like Liliales is that it has true vessels in its conducting tissue. Another is that the veins of the leaves, between major veins, are reticulate (net-shaped), rather than parallel as in most monocots. [more]

Solanaceae

Solanaceae are a family of flowering plants that include a number of important agricultural crops as well as many toxic plants. The name of the family comes from the Latin Solanum "the nightshade plant", but the further etymology of that word is unclear. Most likely, the name comes from the perceived resemblance that some of the flowers bear to the sun and its rays, and in fact a species of Solanum (Solanum nigrum) is known as the sunberry. Alternatively, it has been suggested the name originates from the Latin verb solari, meaning "to soothe". This presumably refers to soothing pharmacological properties of some of the psychoactive species of the family. [more]

Solenoporaceae

The extinct Solenoporaceae have traditionally been interpreted as a group of red algae ancestral to the Corallinales. [more]

Solieriaceae

[more]

Sonneratiaceae

Sonneratiaceae was a family of flowering plants placed in the order Myrtales by the Cronquist system. It consisted of two genera, Sonneratia and Duabanga. These are now generally placed in their own monotypic subfamilies of the family Lythraceae, making Sonneratiaceae superfluous. [more]

Sorapillaceae

[more]

Sparganiaceae

Sparganiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family was previously recognized by most taxonomists. [more]

Spenceritaceae

[more]

Sphaerocarpaceae

Sphaerocarpaceae is a family of liverworts known as bottle liverworts. Approximately ten species are included in this family, most of them in the genus Sphaerocarpos, but one additional species in the genus Geothallus. [more]

Sphaerococcaceae

[more]

Sphaeropleaceae

Sphaeropleaceae is a family of algae, in the order Chlorococcales. [more]

Sphaerosepalaceae

[more]

Sphagnaceae

The Sphagnaceae is a family of moss with only one living genus Sphagnum. [more]

Sphenocleaceae

Sphenoclea is a genus of succulent erect annual herbs. They occur in damp habitats throughout the tropics. [more]

Sphenostemonaceae

[more]

Sphondylomoraceae

[more]

Spigeliaceae

[more]

Spiridentaceae

[more]

Splachnaceae

[more]

Splachnobryaceae

Plants acrocarpous. Stems mostly simple; in section showing a few layers of large cells with slightly thickened walls surrounding a few layers of cells with thinner walls, both layers chlorophyllose and with yellowish walls; at the center a field of thin-walled cells with a central strand undifferentiated to present and distinct, the medial cells of the stem sometimes disintegrating and leaving a void; axillary hairs 2-3-celled, proximal cell(s) short, with faintly yellowish walls, distal cell much larger. Leaves oblong to obovate-spatulate, rarely bordered with elongate cells; costa single, sometimes with short lateral spurs or forked, in cross section showing 0-2 guide cells and 1-5 substereid cells; medial cells of leaves oblong, smooth or occasionally distinctly mammillose on one or both surfaces. Specialized asexual reproduction by gemmae on axillary rhizoids and by rhizoid tubers. Sexual condition dioicous; perigonia terminal, becoming lateral by innovations, antheridia sometimes solitary in leaf axils proximal to the perigonial; perichaetia absent, archegonia clustered at stem tip, becoming solitary in leaf axils by elongation of stem apex, paraphyses absent. Seta single, short, smooth. Capsule exserted, erect, symmetric; annulus of several rows of thick-walled isodiametric to horizontally elongate cells; operculum conic-apiculate; peristome a single circle of 16 teeth. Calyptra elongate, narrowly conic-cylindric, split from base on one side about half its length. Spores spheric, yellowish.[18] [more]

Spondylomoraceae

In taxonomy, the spondylomoraceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlamydomonadales. [more]

Sporangiostrobaceae

[more]

Sporochnaleae

[more]

Sporolithaceae

The Sporolithaceae are one of the two extant families of coralline algae (algae in the order Corallinales). They are differentiated from the other family, the Corallinaceae, by their formation of conceptacles with one or many pores. [more]

Squamarinaceae

[more]

Stachyuraceae

Stachyuraceae is a flowering plant family of shrubs and small trees native to East and Southeast Asia. The plants have leaves with serrate margins and flowers in long, hanging racemes. [more]

Stackhousiaceae

Stackhousiaceae R.Br. is an obsolete family of plants, now merged into the Celastraceae family. When accepted, it comprised the following genera: [more]

Stangeriaceae

Stangeriaceae is the smallest family of cycads, both in number of living and fossil species. The family contains only two living genera, Stangeria and Bowenia, though the latter genus has been recommended for placement in a separate family by itself. [more]

Staphyleaceae

Staphyleaceae is a small family of five genera of flowering plants in the order Crossosomatales, native to the Northern Hemisphere and also in South America. The genus Staphylea, which gives the family its name, contains the "bladdernut" trees. [more]

Stauropteridaceae

[more]

Stegnospermaceae

[more]

Stellatocharaceae

[more]

Stemonaceae

Stemonaceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting of three or four genera with between 25-35 species. The APG II system places it in the order Pandanales, in the monocots. The family is native to southeastern Asia and northern Australasia, with one species in North America. [more]

Stenomeridaceae

[more]

Stephanosphaeraceae

[more]

Sterculiaceae

Sterculiaceae is a botanical name for a group of flowering plants at the rank of family, which is now considered obsolete. As is true for any botanical name, the circumscription, status and placement of the taxon has varied with taxonomic point of view. The family name is based on the genus Sterculia. [more]

Stereophyllaceae

[more]

Stichococcaceae

[more]

Stilbaceae

[more]

Strasburgeriaceae

[more]

Strelitziaceae

Strelitziaceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. The plants are very similar in appearance and growth habit to members of the related families Heliconiaceae and Musaceae (banana family). The genera of Strelitziaceae have been included in Musaceae in some classifications, but are generally recognized as a separate family in more recent treatments such as the APG II system (2003). The APG II system assigns Strelitziaceae to the order Zingiberales in the commelinid clade. [more]

Strychnaceae

[more]

Stylidiaceae

The family Stylidiaceae is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It consists of five genera with over 240 species, most of which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Members of Stylidiaceae are typically grass-like herbs or small shrubs and can be perennials or annuals. Most species are free standing or self-supporting, though a few can be climbing or scrambling (Stylidium scandens uses leaf tips recurved into hooks to climb). [more]

Stylonemataceae

[more]

Styracaceae

Styracaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Ericales, containing 11 genera and about 160 species of trees and shrubs. The family occurs in warm temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. [more]

Surianaceae

Surianaceae is a family of plants in the order Fabales. It has an unusual distribution: the genus Recchia is native to Mexico, and the sole member of Suriana, S. maritima, is a coastal plant with a pantropical distribution; and the remaining three genera are endemic to Australia. [more]

Sycidiaceae

[more]

Symphoremataceae

[more]

Symplocaceae

Symplocaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Ericales, including two genera, Symplocos and >, totalling about 320 species native to Asia, Australia and the Americas. [more]

Taccaceae

Dioscoreaceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, with about 750 species in eight or nine genera. The best-known member of the family is the Yam (Dioscorea). [more]

Takakiaceae

Takakia is a genus of two species of moss known from western North America and central and eastern Asia. The genus is placed as a separate family, order and class among the mosses. It has had a history of uncertain placement, but the discovery of sporophytes clearly of the moss-type firmly supports placement with the mosses. [more]

Tamaricaceae

Tamaricaceae (the tamarisk family) is a flowering plant family containing four genera. In the 1980s, the family was classified in the Violales under the Cronquist system; more modern classifications (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) place them in the Caryophyllales. [more]

Tapisciaceae

[more]

Targioniaceae

Targionia is a genus of liverworts in order Marchantiales. It is a member of family Targioniaceae within that order. This genus has worldwide distribution in areas with a Mediterranean climate. That is, in regions with hot dry summers and cool wet winters. [more]

Taxaceae

The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. [more]

Taxodiaceae

The Taxodiaceae were at one time regarded as a distinct plant family comprising the following ten genera of coniferous trees: [more]

Tchernoviaceae

[more]

Tecophilaeaceae

[more]

Tectariaceae

[more]

Tepuianthaceae

[more]

Tetrabaenaceae

In taxonomy, the Tetrabaenaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Chlamydomonadales. [more]

Tetracarpaeaceae

[more]

Tetracentraceae

Trees, evergreen, with vessel-less wood. Terminal bud at first enclosed by stipule, later free. Stipule adnate to petiole. Leaves simple, alternate on long, 1-year-old branchlets or single and subterminal on short, many-year-old branchlets, marked by crowded concentric scars from petiole bases and bud scales from former years; leaf blade palmately veined. Inflorescences catkinlike multiflowered spikes, borne near base of petiole at apex of short branchlets. Flowers bisexual, in whorls of 4 alternating on inflorescence, 4-merous. Sepals 4. Petals absent. Stamens 4, opposite sepals; anthers basifixed. Ovary superior; carpels 4, alternating with stamens, united at base, each 1-loculed; placenta 2 per locule, parallel along the locule ventral suture; ovules (5 or) 6, attached near placenta middle, horizontal at anthesis. Seeds with oily endosperm; embryo minute.[19] [more]

Tetrachondraceae

[more]

Tetracystaceae

[more]

Tetradiclidaceae

[more]

Tetragoniaceae

[more]

Tetramelaceae

Tetrameristaceae

[more]

Tetraphidaceae

The Tetraphidaceae is a family of mosses. It includes only the two genera Tetraphis and Tetrodontium, each with two species. [more]

Tetrasporaceae

In taxonomy, the Tetrasporaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Tetrasporales. [more]

Thalassiaceae

[more]

Thalassiphoraceae

[more]

Thamnobryaceae

[more]

Theaceae

The Theaceae is a family of flowering plants, composed of shrubs and trees. Some botanists include the family Ternstroemiaceae within the Theaceae while others do not. Theaceae can be described as having anywhere from 7-40 genera, depending on the source and the method of circumscription used. [more]

Theliaceae

[more]

Theligonaceae

[more]

Thelypteridaceae

Thelypteridaceae is a family of about 900 species of ferns. [more]

Theophrastaceae

Theophrastaceae is a small family of flowering plants. As currently circumscribed, the family consists of seven genera and 95 species of trees or shrubs, native to tropical regions of the Americas. [more]

Thismiaceae

[more]

Thoreaceae

[more]

Thuidiaceae

[more]

Thurniaceae

[more]

Thymelaeaceae

Thymelaeaceae is a cosmopolitan family of flowering plants composed of 50 genera (listed below) and 898 species. It was established in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. [more]

Thyrsopteridaceae

[more]

Tichocarpaceae

[more]

Ticodendraceae

Ticodendron incognitum is the only species of Ticodendron, and the only member of the family Ticodendraceae. It is most closely related to the family Betulaceae. [more]

Tiliaceae

Tiliaceae is a botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family is not part of APG II, but it is found all through the botanical literature and remains prominently listed by nomenclatural databases such as IPNI. [more]

Timmiaceae

Timmia is a genus of moss. It is the only genus in the family Timmiaceae and order Timmiales. The genus is named in honor of the 18th-century German botanist Joachim Christian Timm. [more]

Tofieldiaceae

[more]

Toricelliaceae

Trees or shrubs, dioecious. Branches spreading, thick, with conspicuous leaf scars; pith soft, white, wide in relation to twig. Leaves alternate, petiolate, estipulate, simple; petiole elongate, expanding at base, sheathing; leaf blade broadly cordate to nearly orbicular, papery, unlobed or slightly lobed, lobes 5 7( 9), glabrous or pubescent, trichomes multicellular, glandular, veins palmate, 5 7( 9), margin entire or serrate. Inflorescences racemiform panicles, terminal, pendulous. Flowers unisexual, shortly pedicellate, bracteolate. Staminate flowers: calyx 5-dentate, teeth small, unequal; petals 5, narrowly elliptic, apex inflexed; stamens 5, filaments short, anthers oblong, locules 2, longitudinally dehiscent; vestigial styles 1 3, minute. Carpellate flowers: calyx lobes 3 5, unequal, acutely triangular; petals and vestigial stamens absent; ovary inferior, locules 3 or 4, often only 1 locule with a pendulous ovule; styles 3, persistent, 3 4 mm, thick, apex often 2-lobed; stigmas 3, often curved and extending downward. Fruit drupelike, purple red or black, ovoid or obliquely ovoid, crowned by persistent calyx and styles; stone of fruit with a triangular germination valve. Seeds linear, curved; embryo at apex of fleshy endosperm.[20] [more]

Tovariaceae

[more]

Trachypodaceae

[more]

Trapaceae

The water caltrop, water chestnut, buffalo nut, bat nut, devil pod or Singhara (???????) or Pani-fol (??????) is either of two species of the genus Trapa: Trapa natans and Trapa bicornis. Both species are floating annual aquatic plants, growing in slow-moving water up to 5 meters deep, native to warm temperate parts of Eurasia and Africa. They bear ornately shaped fruits, which in the case of T. bicornis resemble the head of a bull, each fruit containing a single very large starchy seed. It has been cultivated in China and India for at least 3,000 years for the seeds. [more]

Trapellaceae

[more]

Tremandraceae

[more]

Trentepholiaceae

[more]

Trentepohliaceae

[more]

Treubariaceae

[more]

Treubiaceae

Treubiaceae is a family of liverworts in the order Treubiales. Species are large and leafy, and were previously classified among the Metzgeriales. [more]

Tribelaceae

[more]

Trichocoleaceae

Trichocoleaceae is a family of liverworts in order Jungermanniales. [more]

Trichopityaceae

[more]

Trichopodaceae

[more]

Trichotheliaceae

[more]

Tricyrtidaceae

[more]

Trigoniaceae

Trigoniaceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting of 28 species in 4 genera. It is a tropical family found in Madagascar, Southeast Asia, Central and South America. [more]

Trigonocarpaceae

[more]

Trilliaceae

Trilliaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. The family has been recognised as distinct since 1846 when it was recognized; this table [1] for a summarizes the placement of these taxa. The family has been recognized by taxonomists such as Takhtajan, Dahlgren, Thorne, and Watson & Dallwitz; other taxonomists have considered these plants to belong to the family Liliaceae. The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), does not recognize such a family either and assigns the plants involved to family Melanthiaceae. One problem with this recognition is the lack of morphological synapomorphies for the family Melanthiaceae; this chart [2] provides a summary of the characters in each of the major groups. [more]

Trimeniaceae

[more]

Trimerophytaceae

[more]

Triploporellaceae

[more]

Triplostegiaceae

[more]

Triuridaceae

Triuridaceae is a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by relatively few taxonomists. [more]

Trochiliscaceae

[more]

Trochodendraceae

Trees or shrubs, evergreen, with vessel-less wood. Reproductive shoots sympodial. Stipules absent. Leaves spirally arranged, pseudoverticillate, simple, petiolate; leaf blade pinnately veined. Inflorescences terminal racemes or panicles. Flowers bisexual, long-lived. Pedicel usually with 2--5 small bracteoles. Receptacle expanded. Perianth absent. Stamens 40--70, in several series. Carpels (4--) 6--17, in a single series, laterally fused; ovules 15--30 per carpel, in two rows along ventral suture of carpel. Fruit composed of laterally fused follicles, ventricidal and shortly loculicidal. Seeds basally and apically with winglike projections; endosperm oily; embryo minute.[21] [more]

Trochosiraceae

[more]

Tropaeolaceae

Tropaeolum (), commonly known as Nasturtium (play /n?'st?r???m/; literally "nose-twister" or "nose-tweaker"), is a genus of roughly 80 species of annual and perennial herbaceous flowering plants and the only genus in the family Tropaeolaceae. It should not be confused with the Watercresses of the genus Nasturtium, of the Mustard family. The genus Tropaeolum, native to South and Central America, includes several very popular garden plants, the most commonly grown being T. majus, T. peregrinum and T. speciosum. The hardiest species is T. polyphyllum from Chile, the perennial roots of which can survive underground when air temperatures drop as low as -15?C (5?F). [more]

Turneraceae

Turneraceae Kunth ex DC. is a family of flowering plants consisting of 120 species in 10 genera. The Cronquist system placed the Turneracids in the order Violales, but it is not currently recognized as a valid family by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in the APG III system of 2009, which includes the taxa in the Turneraceae in the Passifloraceae. [more]

Typhaceae

Typhaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists. [more]

Udoteaceae

In taxonomy, the Udoteaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Bryopsidales. [more]

Ullmanniaceae

[more]

Ulmaceae

Ulmaceae is a family of flowering plant that includes the elms (genus Ulmus), and the zelkovas (genus Zelkova). Members of the family are widely distributed throughout the north temperate zone, and have a scattered distribution elsewhere except for Australasia. [more]

Ulotrichaceae

In taxonomy, the Ulotrichaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Ulotrichales. [more]

Ulvaceae

Ulvaceae is a family of green algae. [more]

Ulvellaceae

In taxonomy, the Ulvellaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Ulvales. [more]

Umbelliferae

[more]

Umkomasiaceae

[more]

Urnatopteridaceae

[more]

Urticaceae

Urticaceae, or the nettle family, is a family of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica (nettles). Urticaceae include a number of well-known and useful plants, including the aforementioned nettles, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), mamaki (Pipturus albidus), and ajlai (). [more]

Utrechtiaceae

[more]

Uvulariaceae

[more]

Vahliaceae

[more]

Valerianaceae

The Valerianaceae, or valerian family, of the order Dipsacales contains about 350 species in 7 genera. Plants are generally herbaceous and foliage often has a strong, disagreeable odor. They are found native in most regions of the world except for Australia. Some species are cultivated as ornamentals or used in herbal medicine for inducing relaxation and sleep. [more]

Valoniaceae

In taxonomy, the Valoniaceae are a family of algae, specifically of the Cladophorales. [more]

Vandiemeniaceae

Vandiemenia ratkowskiana is the only species of liverwort in the genus Vandiemenia. It is endemic to Tasmania, Australia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. [more]

Velloziaceae

Velloziaceae is a botanical name for a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by many taxonomists. [more]

Verbenaceae

Verbenaceae, commonly known as the verbena family or vervain family, is a family of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell. [more]

Verdoorniaceae

[more]

Vetaformaceae

Vetaforma is a genus of liverworts found only in Argentina and Chile, and contains a single species Vetaforma dusenii. It is classified in order Jungermanniales and is the only member of the family Vetaformataceae within that order. The genus and family names were originally published in 1960, but this publication was invalid under Article 36.1 of the ICBN. [more]

Viburnaceae

[more]

Violaceae

Violaceae (alternatively Alsodeiaceae , Leoniaceae DC. and Retrosepalaceae Dulac) are a family of flowering plants consisting of about 800 species in 21 genera. It takes its name from the genus Viola, the violets and pansies. [more]

Viridivelleraceae

Viridivellus is the only genus of moss in family Viridivelleraceae. [more]

Viscaceae

Viscaceae is a family of flowering plants. In past decades, several systems of plant taxonomy recognized this family, notably the 1981 Cronquist system. In this circumscription, the family includes the several genera of mistletoes. [more]

Vitaceae

Vitaceae are a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants including the grapevine and Virginia creeper. The family name is derived from the genus Vitis. The name sometimes appears as Vitidaceae, but Vitaceae is a conserved name and therefore has priority over both Vitidaceae and another name sometimes found in the older literature, Ampelidaceae. [more]

Viticaceae

[more]

Vittariaceae

Adiantaceae (as construed here, sensu strictu, not a synonym of Pteridaceae) is a family of ferns in the order Pteridales. This includes the family formerly known as the "Vittariaceae." Recent genetic analyses based on chloroplast genes demonstrate that the vittarioid ferns cladistically nest within the genus Adiantum, making that genus paraphyletic. [more]

Vivianiaceae

[more]

Vochysiaceae

Vochysiaceae is a plant family belonging to the order of Myrtales. [more]

Vojnovskyaceae

[more]

Voltziaceae

[more]

Volvocaceae

The Volvocaceae are a family of unicellular or colonial biflagellates, including the typical genus Volvox. The family was named by Ehrenberg in 1834, and is known in older classifications as the Volvocidae. [more]

Walleriaceae

[more]

Wardiaceae

Wardia is a monotypic genus of mosses in the subclass Dicranidae; it contains only the species Wardia hygrometrica, "an aquatic moss endemic to the Western Cape province of South Africa." Because it is an aquatic moss, it was first classified in the , but molecular studies have shown that it is more closely related to the Dicranaceae. [more]

Weeksiaceae

[more]

Welwitschiaceae

Welwitschia is a monotypic genus of gymnosperm plant, composed solely of the very distinct Welwitschia mirabilis. The plant is commonly simply known as Welwitschia in English. It is known locally as !kharos or khurub (Nama), tweeblaarkanniedood (Afrikaans), nyanka (Damara), or onyanga (Herero), among others. It is the only genus of the family Welwitschiaceae and order Welwitschiales, in the division Gnetophyta. The plant, which is considered a living fossil, is named after the Austrian botanist Friedrich Welwitsch who discovered it in 1859. The geographic distribution of Welwitschia mirabilis is limited to the Namib desert within Namibia and Angola. [more]

Winteraceae

The Winteraceae are a family of flowering plants. The family includes 120 species of trees and shrubs in 9 genera. [more]

Witrockiellaceae

[more]

Wittrockiellaceae

[more]

Woodsiaceae

Woodsiaceae or Cliff Fern is a family of fern within the Polypodiales order. [more]

Wurdemanniaceae

[more]

Xanthophyllaceae

[more]

Xanthorrhoeaceae

[more]

Xerophyllaceae

[more]

Xyridaceae

Xyridaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. Such a family has been recognized by many taxonomists and is known as the Yellow-eyed-grass Family. [more]

Zamiaceae

The Zamiaceae are a family of cycads that are superficially palm or fern-like. They are divided into two subfamilies with eight genera and about 150 species in the tropical and warm temperate regions of Africa, Australia and North and South America. [more]

Zannichelliaceae

The Potamogetonaceae, commonly referred to as the pondweed family, is an aquatic family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. There are roughly 120 species spread across six genera in the Potamagetonaceae. The largest genus in the family by far is Potamogeton, which contains about 100 species. [more]

Zingiberaceae

Zingiberaceae, or the Ginger family, is a family of flowering plants consisting of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal or tuberous rhizomes, comprising ca. 52 genera and more than 1300 species, distributed throughout tropical Africa, Asia, and the Americas. [more]

Zosteraceae

Zosteraceae (the seagrass family) is a family of marine perennial flowering plants found in temperate and subtropical coastal waters, with the highest diversity located around Korea and Japan. Most seagrasses complete their entire life cycle under water, having filamentous pollen especially adapted to dispersion in an aquatic environment and ribbon-like leaves that lack stomata. Seagrasses are herbaceous and have prominent creeping rhizomes. A distinctive characteristic of the family is the presence of characteristic retinacules, which are present in all species except members of Zostera subgenus Zostera. [more]

Zosterophyllaceae

The Zosterophylls are a group of extinct plants. The taxon was first established by Banks in 1968 as the subdivision Zosterophyllophytina; they have since also been treated as the division Zosterophyllophyta and the class Zosterophyllopsida. They were among the first vascular plants in the fossil record, and had a world-wide distribution. They were probably stem-group lycophytes, forming a sister group to the ancestors of the living lycophytes. By the late Silurian (late Ludlovian, about 420 million years ago) a diverse assemblage of species existed, examples of which have been found fossilised in what is now Bathurst Island in Arctic Canada. [more]

Zygnemataceae

The Zygnematacae are a family of filamentous or unicellular, uniseriate (unbranched) green algae. The filaments are septated and reproduction is by conjugation; Spirogyra is commonly used in schools to demonstrate this kind of reproduction. The family is notable for its diversely shaped chloroplasts, such as stellate in Zygnema, helical in Spirogyra, and flat in Mougeotia. The Zygnemataceae are cosmopolitan, but though all generally occur in the same types of habitats, Mougeotia, Spirogyra, and Zygnema are by far the most common; in one study across North America (McCourt et al., 1986, as reported in Wehr, 2003, pg. 363), 95% of the Zygnemataceae collected were in these three genera. Classification and identification is primarily by the morphology of the conjugation, which is somewhat rare to find in natural populations of permanent water bodies; when in the vegetative state, the rarer genera resemble the three most common, and are often mistaken for them and catalogued as such. Conjugation can be induced in low-nitrogen culture. [more]

Zygophyllaceae

The Zygophyllaceae is a family of flowering plants that contains the bean-caper and caltrop. It includes around 285 species in 22 genera. [more]

Zygopteridaceae

[more]

Zygosphaeraceae

[more]

At least 12 species and subspecies belong to the Family Zygosphaeraceae.

More info about the Family Zygosphaeraceae may be found here.

Bibliography

  • Breen, R. S. and R. A. Pursell. 1959. The genus Splachnobryum in the United States, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 38: 280-289. Koponen, A. 1981. Splachnobryaceae, a new moss family. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 18: 123-132.
  • Britton, E. G. 1913b. Ditrichaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora. ..... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 15, pp. 55-67.
  • Bryan, V. S. and L. E. Anderson. 1957. The Ephemeraceae in North America. Bryologist 60: 67-102.
  • Chen Wei-chiu. 1984. Bretschneideraceae. In: Fu Shu-hsia & Fu Kun-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 34(1) : 8-10.
  • Churchill, S. P. 1981. A phylogenetic analysis, classification and synopsis of the genera of the Grimmiaceae (Musci). Advances Cladist. 1: 127-144.
  • Crum, H. A. 1972b. A taxonomic account of the Erpodiaceae. Nova Hedwigia 23: 201-224.
  • Crum, H. A. 1994. Rhachitheciaceae. In: A. J. Sharp et al., eds. The moss flora of Mexico. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 69: 588-590.
  • Goffinet, B. 1997. The Rhachitheciaceae: Revised generic circumscription and ordinal affinities. Bryologist 100: 425-439.
  • Hoo Gin & Tseng Chang-jiang. 1978. Diplopanax. In: Hoo Gin & Tseng Chang-jiang, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 54: 135136.
  • Hu Wenkuang. 1990. Toricellia. In: Fang Wenpei & Hu Wenkuang, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 56: 3538.
  • Jones, G. N. 1933. Grimmiaceae. In: A. J. Grout. Moss Flora of North America, North of Mexico. 3 vols. in 12 parts. Newfane, Vt. and New York. Vol. 2, pp. 1-60.
  • Kuan Ke-chien. 1979. Trochodendraceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 27: 21--22.
  • Ming Tien lu. 1980. Pentaphylacaceae. In: Cheng Mien & Ming Tien lu, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 45(1): 135-138.
  • Pursell, R. A. 1994. Erpodiaceae. In: A. J. Sharp et al., eds. The moss flora of Mexico. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 69: 581-588.
  • Pursell, R. A. and B. H. Allen. 2002. Erpodiaceae. In: B. H. Allen, ed. Moss flora of Central America. Part 2. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 523-531.
  • Reese, W. D. and R. H. Zander. 1988. Comparison of Calymperaceae with Pottiaceae. Bryologist 91: 18-20.
  • Reese, W. D. 1993. Calymperaceae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 98+ nos. New York. No. 58.
  • Soong Tzepu. 1990. Aucuba. In: Fang Wenpei & Hu Wenkuang, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 56: 620.
  • Soong Tzepu. 1990. Helwingia. In: Fang Wenpei & Hu Wenkuang, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 56: 2035.
  • Soong Tzepu. 1990. Mastixia. In: Fang Wenpei & Hu Wenkuang, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 56: 25
  • Stone, I. G. 1997. A revision of Erpodiaceae with particular reference to Australian taxa. J. Bryol. 19: 485-502.
  • Tao Deding. 1990. Martyniaceae. In: Wang Wentsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 69: 67-68.
  • Vital, D. M. 1980. Erpodiaceae (Musci) do Brasil. M.S. thesis. Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
  • Wan Wenhao. 2000. Cynomoriaceae. In: Chen Chiajui, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 53(2): 152-154.
  • Wang Wen-tsai. 1980. Circaeaster. In: Wang Wen-tsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 239241.
  • Wu Kuo-fang. 1997. Flagellariaceae. In: Wu Kuo-fang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13(3): 2--4.
  • Wu Te-lin & Chen Sen-jen. 1981. Musaceae subfam. Lowioideae. In: Wu Te-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 19--21.
  • Zander, R. H., 1978, Tortula propagulosa of the United States is Rhachithecium perpusillum. Bryologist 81: 458-460.

Footnotes

  1. Jenny Qiuyun Xiang & David E. Boufford "Aucubaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 222. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  2. Lianli Lu & David E. Boufford baz & Vladimir Dorofeev "Bretschneideraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 197. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  3. William D. Reese "Calymperaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 654, 663. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  4. Dezhi Fu & Bryan E. Dutton "Circaeasteraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 439. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  5. Jiarui Chen & Michele Funston "Cynomoriaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 434. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  6. Rodney D. Seppelt "Ditrichaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 360, 377, 383, 433, 443, 444, 467. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  7. Virginia S. Bryan "Ephemeraceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 646, 653. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  8. Ronald A. Pursell, Bruce H. Allen "Erpodiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 470, 474. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  9. Guofang Wu & Kai Larsen "Flagellariaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  10. Roxanne I. Hastings, Ryszard Ochyra "Grimmiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 39, 204, 205, 231, 265, 266, 286, 294, 306, 615. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  11. Jenny Qiuyun Xiang & David E. Boufford "Helwingiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 227. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  12. Delin Wu & W. John Kress "Lowiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 319. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  13. Zhi-Yun Zhang & Heidrun E. K. Hartmann "Martyniaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 18 Page 228. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  14. Jenny Qiuyun Xiang, Qibai Xiang, David E. Boufford & Porter P. Lowry "Mastixiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 230. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  15. Tianlu Min & Bruce Bartholomew "Pentaphylacaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 365. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  16. William D. Reese "Ptychomitriaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 306. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  17. Bernard Goffinet "Rhachitheciaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 468. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  18. William D. Reese "Splachnobryaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 643. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  19. Bruce Bartholomew "Tetracentraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 125. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  20. Jenny Qiuyun Xiang & David E. Boufford "Toricelliaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 233. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  21. Dezhi Fu & Peter K. Endress "Trochodendraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 124. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:08:36