Common Names in English:
Annual, Purple Ammannia, Scarlet Toothcup, Scarlet Ammannia, Scarlet Loosestrife, Toothcup, Valley Redstem
, or trees
; young stems often quadrangular
. Leaves opposite, often decussate, or whorled
, rarely subalternate to alternate, simple
, entire; pinnately veined, secondary veins typically joined in a series of intramarginal
arches; stipules vestigial or absent. Inflorescences racemes
, cymes, or panicles; flowers axillary
, usually 4-, 6- or 8-merous, sometimes 3- or 5-merous, bisexual
, regular or irregular. Floral tube
perigynous, hemi-epigynous, or epigynous
in fruit, membranous to leathery, often 6-12-ribbed; sepals valvate
, equal to much shorter than floral tube, membranous to thickly leathery, persistent; epicalyx
alternating with sepals or absent. Petals inserted
of floral tube, alternating with sepals, crinkled
, clawed or not, frequently caducous
, rarely absent. Stamens usually biseriate
and 2 Ã— as many as sepals, sometimes uniseriate
, inserted near base
of floral tube or higher, or numerous
, multiseriate, with at least some inserted at floral
rim just below sepals (Punica, Sonneratia, and some Duabanga) ; anthers
versatile [rarely basifixed
]. Ovary superior, half-inferior, or inferior, 2-6- or multi-loculed, with many ovules per locule; style simple; stigma capitate, conic-peltate, or punctiform
; placentation axile
, sometimes free
central at fruit maturity. Fruit partly or completely surrounded by persistent floral tube
, loculicidally dehiscent
or irregularly dehiscent capsules, infrequently indehiscent, leathery, or berrylike. Seeds usually numerous, without endosperm; embryo straight, cotyledons flat or convolute.
About 31 genera and 625-650 species: widespread in tropical regions , less common in temperate regions ; ten genera and 43 species (ten endemic, four introduced ) in China.
From the morphological standpoint, the Lythraceae sensu lato (including Trapaceae) have a very generalized morphology, without a single unique, defining character, i.e. , there is no morphological synapomorphy that defines the family . At the same time, the genera are distinct . The position of the ovary in Duabanga, Punica, Sonneratia, and Trapa is variable: superior to partly inferior in Sonneratia; partly inferior in Duabanga; and partly, nearly, or completely inferior in Punica and Trapa. Several other features ally these genera to the Lythraceae sensu stricto, including opposite and simple leaves, commonly held wood anatomical characters (true for the Myrtales generally), development of a persistent floral tube, valvate sepals, 4- or 6-merous flowers, introrse and versatile anthers, axile placentation , and seeds without endosperm. Of the four genera, Trapa is the most divergent, but still sufficiently similar to the Lythraceae and Onagraceae to have been considered for membership within either family, or as a closely related family (as has been done in the present Flora ) . The inclusion of Sonneratia, Duabanga, and Punica in the Lythraceae adds some additional derived features to the definition of the family, but at the same time, brings together taxa that we know, from molecular sequence data, represent a single historical lineage . That knowledge of evolutionary relationship is lost if the genera are maintained as separate families, whereas the taxonomic utility of the Flora is not affected by their inclusion in an expanded Lythraceae.
The molecular data from four genes (three chloroplast and one nuclear ) unquestionably place not only Duabanga, Punica, and Sonneratia, but also Trapa, within the Lythraceae. Punica is well supported as a member of a clade of genera that includes Capuronia Lourteig, Galpinia N. E. Brown, and Pemphis (from East Africa and Madagascar) . Duabanga and Lagerstroemia are sister genera, and Sonneratia and Trapa, as unlikely as it may seem morphologically, are also sister genera. Duabanga, Lagerstroemia, Sonneratia, and Trapa together form one of seven clades in the family.
, tending to become anthocyanic
with age. Stems erect
; young branches often 4-angled or narrowly winged
. Leaves opposite, usually decussate, sessile or subsessile
, membranous. Inflorescences cymose
, with small, white, membranous bracteoles. Flowers 4(-6) -merous, actinomorphic
. Floral tube
, becoming globose
or nearly so in fruit, 4(-6) -lobed, noticeably 4-8-veined; sepals short, less than 1/3 length
of floral tube; epicalyx
segments between sepals small or absent. Petals absent to 4, caducous
. Stamens 2-8. Ovary incompletely [1 or]2-4-loculed, globose; ovules numerous
; style much shorter to much longer
than ovary, style base persistent
in fruit; stigma capitate. Capsule globose, hyaline
walled, not finely striated, irregularly dehiscing from apex. Seeds many, golden-brown, obovoid
, concave-convex, ca.
2n = 18, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 48, 66.
About 25 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, mainly in Africa and Asia; four species (one naturalized ) in China.
Species Ammannia coccinea
Herbs, annual , to 60[-100] cm tall. Stems branched. Leaves opposite, sessile, linear-lanceolate, 1.6-8 cm × 3[-15] mm, glaucescent , base cordate to auriculate , clasping . Flowers (1-) 3-5 in axillary cymes; pedicels ca. 2 mm; peduncle absent to 9 mm; bracteoles reaching floral tube . Floral tube urceolate , 3-5 mm; sepals 4(or 5), broadly deltate; epicalyx segments thickened, ca. as long as sepals. Petals 4(or 5), rose-purple, obovate , ca. 2 mm. Stamens 4(-7), slightly exserted. Style ca. as long as or longer than ovary, well-exserted. Capsules 3.5-5 mm in diam., equal to or exceeding floral tube, rarely included . Fl. Jul-Oct, fr. Aug-Nov. 2n = 66. [source]
Habit: Forb/herb , Subshrub
• Flower Color: red
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,085 meters (0 to 6,841 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Myrtanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Ammannia teres Raf.
Publishing author : Rottb. Publication : Pl. Hort. Univ. (Havn.) Programm. Descr. (1773) 7
Members of the genus Ammannia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. auriculata (Eared Redstem) · A. baccifera (Blistering Ammania) · A. coccinea (Annual) · A. latifolia (Koehne Ammannia) · A. ramosior (Lowland Toothcup) · A. robusta (Grand Redstem) · A. senegalensis (Red Ammannia)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2651074
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-27091
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13743007
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:552672-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 403806
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 27091
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 552672-1
- MoBot NameID: 19200303
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDLYT01020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: AMTE6
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 20823
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- Mean = 243.730 meters (799.639 feet), Standard Deviation = 252.800 based on 851 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]