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Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 'Emerald Carpet'

(Bearberry)

Common Names

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Common Names in English:

Bearberry, Kinnikinnick, Manzanita

Description

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Family Ericaceae

Plants usually woody, or herbs, sometimes lacking chlorophyll. Leaves spiral , sometimes decussate, margin often toothed . Inflorescence racemose; bracteoles paired , basal. Flowers (4 or) 5-merous. Calyx imbricate. Corolla connate , imbricate. Stamens 10, sometimes with spurs or awns , dehiscing by pores , pollen in tetrads , rarely single. Ovary superior or inferior, placentation axile , rarely parietal , often many ovules per locule. Style ± as long as corolla, slender. Fruit a capsule or berry, rarely a drupe; calyx persistent.

About 125 genera and 4000 species: widely distributed in temperate and subarctic regions, also at high elevations in tropical regions ; 22 genera and 826 species (524 endemic) in China.

The Monotropoideae are here included in the Ericaceae; previously in FRPS (56: 157 216. 1990), they were treated as the Pyrolaceae. Chiogenes, recorded from China in FRPS (57(3) : 69 71. 1991), is here included in Gaultheria. Over the last half century, the Empetraceae have usually been separated from, but closely associated with, the Ericaceae. In their ecology, leaf morphology and insertion , rusts, embryology, stamen anatomy, etc. , they largely agree with that family . Molecular data place Empetrum and its relatives firmly within the Ericaceae, and in particular within the subfamily Ericoideae, in agreement with phytochemical and palynological data, and there they are best recognized as a separate tribe . There are distinctive features of the Empetreae that were responsible for their past familial status, e.g. , reduced perianth with separate members , low ovule number, enlarged stigmas, etc. However, these are likely to be derived features associated with wind pollination. See Kron et al. (Bot. Rev. 68: 335 423. 2002) and the recent treatment of the Ericaceae by Stevens et al. (in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 6: 145 194. 2004) .

Several genera and many species are ornamentals . Some fruits of Vaccinium in N China are sweet and edible, but of no particular value to humans. Some species of Chamaedaphne, Craibiodendron, Leucothoë, Lyonia, Pieris, and Rhododendron contain more or less toxic diterpenes, which are harmful to humans or domestic animals.[1]

Physical Description

Habit: Evergreen .

Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none, pink

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 12-18" tall.

Biology

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Growth

Culture: Space 4-6' apart.

Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 7a, 8a, 9a. (map)

Taxonomy

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Similar Species

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Members of the genus Arctostaphylos

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 217 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

A. alpina (Alpine Bearberry) · A. alpina alpina (Alpine Bearberry) · A. alpina japonica (Alpine Bearberry) · A. andersonii (Santa Cruz Manzanita) · A. andersonii tridentata (Santa Cruz Manzanita) · A. auriculata (Mount Diablo Manzanita) · A. australis (Australian Manzanita) · A. bakeri (Baker's Manzanita) · A. bakeri sublaevis (Baker's Manzanita) · A. bakeri subsp. sublaevis (The Cedars Manzanita) · A. benitoensis (Benito Manzanita) · A. campbelliae (Campbell Manzanita) · A. canescens (Hoary Manzanita) · A. canescens sonomensis (Hoary Manzanita) · A. canescens subsp. sonomensis (Sonoma Manzanita) · A. catalinae (Santa Catalina Island Manzanita) · A. cinerea (Waldo Manzanita) · A. coloradensis (Colorado Manzanita) · A. columbiana (Bristly Manzanita) · A. columbiana nortensis (Hairy Manzanita) · A. columbiana subsp. nortensis (Bristly Manzanita) · A. confertiflora (Santa Rosa Island Manzanita) · A. crassifolia (Del Mar Manzanita) · A. cruzensis (Arroyo De La Cruz Manzanita) · A. densiflora (Vine Hill Manzanita) · A. densiflora 'Harmony' (Manzanita) · A. densiflora 'Howard Mcminn' (Vine Hill Manzanita) · A. densiflora 'Sentinel' (Manzanita) · A. edmundsii (Little Sur Manzanita) · A. edmundsii 'Big Sur' (Manzanita) · A. edmundsii 'Carmel Sur' (Manzanita) · A. edmundsii 'Danville' (Manzanita) · A. edmundsii 'Indian Hill' (Manzanita) · A. edmundsii 'Little Sur' (Manzanita) · A. gabrielensis (San Gabriel Manzanita) · A. glandulosa adamsii (Eastwood Manzanita) · A. glandulosa crassifolia (Eastwood Manzanita) · A. glandulosa glaucomollis (Eastwood Manzanita) · A. glandulosa mollis (Eastwood's Manzanita) · A. glandulosa var. zacaensis 'San Marcos' (Manzanita) · A. glandulosa zacaensis (Eastwood's Manzanita) · A. glandulosa subsp. crassifolia (Del Mar Manzanita) · A. glandulosa subsp. glaucomollis (Eastwood's Manzanita) · A. glandulosa subsp. mollis (Eastwood's Manzanita) · A. glandulosa subsp. zacaensis (Zaca's Manzanita) · A. glauca (Big Berry Manzanita) · A. glauca 'Dwaine's Dwarf' (Manzanita) · A. glauca 'Frazier Park' (Mt. Pinos Manzanita) · A. glauca 'Los Angeles' (Santa Monica Big Berry Manzanita) · A. glauca 'Ramona' (Manzanita) · A. glutinosa (Schreiber's Manzanita) · A. helleri (Heller's Manzanita) · A. hispidula (Gasquet Manzanita) · A. hookeri (Bearberry) · A. hookeri franciscana (Franciscan Manzanita) · A. hookeri hearstiorum (Hearst's Manzanita) · A. hookeri hookeri (Hooker's Manzanita) · A. hookeri montana (Hooker's Manzanita) · A. hookeri ravenii (Hooker's Manzanita) · A. hookeri var. franciscana 'Franciscana' (Franciscan Manzanita) · A. hookeri subsp. franciscana (Franciscan Manzanita) · A. hookeri subsp. hearstiorum (Hearst's Manzanita) · A. hookeri subsp. montana (Mt. Tamalpais Manzanita) · A. hookeri 'Monterey Carpet' (Monterey Pine Manzanita) · A. hookeri subsp. ravenii (Presidio Manzanita) · A. hookeri 'Wayside' (Manzanita Inner Monterey Manzanita) · A. hooveri (Hoover Manzanita) · A. imbricata (San Bruno Mountain Manzanita) · A. imbricata imbricata (San Bruno Mountain Manzanita) · A. insularis (Island Manzanita) · A. jepsonii (Jepson's Manzanita) · A. klamathensis (Klamath Manzanita) · A. laxiflora (Lazyflower Manzanita) · A. luciana (Santa Lucia Manzanita) · A. luciana 'Adelaide' (Santa Lucia Manzanita) · A. malloryi (Mallory's Manzanita) · A. manzanita (Common Manzanita) · A. manzanita glaucescens (Elegant Manzanita) · A. manzanita laevigata (Contra Costa Manzanita) · A. manzanita manzanita (Whiteleaf Manzanita) · A. manzanita roofii (Whiteleaf Manzanita) · A. manzanita wieslanderi (Whiteleaf Manzanita) · A. manzanita 'Dr. Hurd' (Manzanita) · A. manzanita subsp. elegans (Konocti Manzanita) · A. manzanita subsp. glaucescens (Whiteleaf Manzanita) · A. manzanita subsp. laevigata (Contra Costa Manzanita) · A. manzanita subsp. roofii (Roof's Manzanita) · A. manzanita subsp. wieslanderi (Wieslander's Manzanita) · A. media (Intermediate Manzanita) · A. mendocinoensis (Pygmy Manzanita) · A. mewukka (Indian Manzanita) · A. mewukka truei (Indian Manzanita) · A. mewukka subsp. truei (True's Manzanita) · A. montaraensis (Montara Manzanita) · A. montereyensis (Monterey Manzanita) · A. moranii (Moran's Manzanita) · A. morroensis (Morro Manzanita) · A. morroensis 'Park View' (Morro Manzanita) · A. myrtifolia (Ione Manzanita) · A. nevadensis (Hardy Manzanita)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Mingyuan Fang, Ruizheng Fang, Mingyou He, Linzheng Hu, Hanbi Yang, Haining Qin, Tianlu Min, David F. Chamberlain, Peter Stevens, Gary D. Wallace & Arne Anderberg "Ericaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 242. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-09