Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Common Cosmos, Cosmos, Garden Cosmos, Mexican Aster, Mexican-Aster
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Spanish:
Girasol Morado, Mirasol
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Heliantheae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that can be readily recognized due to the association of a receptacular bract or chaff scale with each disk floret in the head . The heads usually include bisexual , actinomorphic disk florets with tubular corollas that have 4 or 5 distal lobes and also peripheral zygomorphic female or sometimes sterile florets with strap-shaped corollas that have 3 or fewer distal teeth. However, the ray flowers are sometimes absent and the heads are then discoid , containing only bisexual florets with tubular corollas. The pappus is absent or more commonly ranges from scales to stiff bristles . -- Gerald Carr.
], 30-250 cm. Stems usually 1, erect
, branched distally or ± throughout. Leaves mostly cauline; opposite; petiolate
or sessile; blades
usually 1-3-pinnately lobed
usually entire, faces
, sometimes glabrate
, or scabridulous
. Heads radiate
, borne singly or in corymbiform
arrays. Calyculi of [5-]8 basally connate
, ± linear
, herbaceous (striate
. Involucres hemispheric
or subhemispheric [cylindric
], 3-15 mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, [5-]8 in ± 2 series, distinct
, lanceolate, lance-oblong, lance-ovate, or oblong
, ± equal, membranous or herbaceous, margins ± scarious
. Receptacles flat, paleate; paleae falling, linear, flat or slightly concave-convex, scarious (entire). Ray florets [0, 5] 8 (more in "double" cultivars), neuter
; corollas white to pink or purple, or yellow to red-orange. Disc florets 10-20[-80+], bisexual
; corollas yellow [orange] (at least distally), tubes
shorter than funnelform
5, ± deltate (staminal
; style branches linear, flattened, thicker distally, hirtellous, appendages
relatively slender). Cypselae (dark brown or black) relatively slender, quadrangular-cylindric or -fusiform [outer somewhat obcompressed
], sometimes slightly arcuate
, attenuate-beaked, not winged
[winged], faces glabrous or hispid to scabridulous or ± setose
, sometimes papillate
, usually with 1 groove
; pappi persistent [falling], of 2-4[-8] retrorsely [antrorsely] barbed
, sometimes 0. x = 12.
Species ca. 26: tropical and subtropical America, especially Mexico, widely introduced elsewhere.
Species Cosmos bipinnatus
30-200 cm, glabrous
or sparsely puberulent
, sometimes scabridulous
0 or to 1 cm; blades
6-11 cm, ultimate
1.5 mm wide, margins
entire, apices acute (indurate
). Peduncles 10-20
cm. Calyculi of spreading
to lanceolate bractlets
apices acuminate. Involucres 7-15 mm diam. Phyllaries erect
to ovate-lanceolate, 7-13 mm, apices round or obtuse
. Ray corollas
white, pink, or purplish, laminae
mm, apices ± truncate
. Disc corollas 5-7 mm.
7-16 mm, glabrous, papillose
; pappi 0, or of 2-3 ascending
1-3 mm. 2n = 24.
Cosmos bipinnatus is native to Mexico and the southwestern United States. A garden favorite, it has escaped and naturalized widely elsewhere in the flora area (and in warm climates almost worldwide), and it has been seeded along roadsides by some highway departments. Many cultivated races and hybrids differ considerably from the wild type described above, varying widely in stature and in coloration of both ray and disc corollas. Some plants in cultivation lack pappi; they are referable to var. exaristatus de Candolle, not treated formally here.
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: near white, pink, red, white
Size: 24-36" tall.
Disturbed sites, roadsides; 0-1000 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,077 meters (0 to 10,095 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: Not Applicable (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Cosmos
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 48 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. atrosanguineus (Chocolate Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Candy Stripe' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Dancing Petticoats' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Daydream' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Dazzler' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Double Click' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Dwarf Sensation Mix' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Early Sensation' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Early Sensation Albatross' (Common Cosmos) · C. Bipinnatus 'Gazebo White' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Gloria' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Picotee' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Pied Piper' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Pinkie' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Psyche Mixed' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Psycho' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Purity' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Radiance' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Seashells' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Sensation Mix' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Sonata Carmine' (Carmine Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Sonata Pink' (Pink Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Sonata Pink Blush' (Sonata Pink Blush Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Sonata Series Mixed' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Sonata White' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Versailles Mix' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Versailles Rose' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Versailles Tetra' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Versailles Tetra Pink' (Common Cosmos) · C. bipinnatus 'Yellow Garden' (Common Cosmos) · C. caudatus (Wild Cosmos) · C. parviflorus (Dwarf Wild Cosmos) · C. peucedanifolius (Perennial Cosmos) · C. sulphureus (Klondike Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Ladybird Scarlet' (Klondike Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Bright Lights' (Klondike Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Cosmic Mix' (Common Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Cosmic Orange' (Common Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Cosmic Red' (Common Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Cosmic Yellow' (Common Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Ladybird Dwarf' (Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Ladybird Dwarf Lemon' (Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Lemon Twist' (Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Polidor' (Klondike Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Red Crest' (Klondike Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Solar Flare' (Klondike Cosmos) · C. sulphureus 'Sunny Red' (Klondike Cosmos)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A botany for India, by P. F. Fyson. London, The Christian Literature Society for Indian (Madras Branch)1912. url p. 337.
- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 40.
- A little garden the year round, wherein much joy was found, experience gained and profit, spiritual as well as mundane, derived without loss of prestige in a practical neighborhood. New York, E. P. Dutton & company[c1919] url .
- A manual of gardening for Bengal and Upper India. By Thomas A. C. Firminger. .. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink and co.; [etc., etc.]1874. url p. 318.
- A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations, Cedar Rapids, Ia., The Torch Press, 1911. url .
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L. H. Pammel. 1911 Cedar Rapids, Ia.: The Torch Press, 1910-11. url p. 756.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , , p. 522, p. 79, p. 94.
- A text-book of mycology and plant pathology, by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., [c1917] url p. 430.
- American bee journal. Hamilton, Ill., etc., Dadant & Sons url p. 715.
- And the wilderness blossomed, Philadelphia, H.W. Fisher & company, 1901. url , p. 210, p. 249, p. 277.
- Annual and biennial garden plants, their value and uses: with full instructions for their cultivation, by A.E. Speer. .. London, J. Murray, 1911. url p. xix.
- Annuals & biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden, London, C. Scribner's sons url .
- Annuals hardy and half hardy. New York, Frederick A. Stokes Co., [1914?] url , , p. 34.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 42 - 46 1973 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 13, p. 80, p. 81.
- Beautiful flowers and how to grow them, by Horace J. Wright & Walter P. Wright. Illustrated with 32 plates in full colours from paintings by Beatrice Parsons, Eleanor Fortesque Brickdale, Hugh L. Norris, Margaret Waterfield, A. Fairfax Muck 1922 Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, ltd., 1922. url p. 258.
- Biologia centrali-americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. London, Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter and Dulau & co., 1879-88. url .
- Brooklyn Botanic Garden record. 19 1930 [Brooklyn]: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1912-44. url p. 3, p. 6.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1916. url p. 113, p. 113, p. 115, p. 115, p. 151, p. 151.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1901 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 9, p. 9.
- Cassell's dictionary of practical gardening; an illustrated encyclopædia of practical horticulture for all classes; ed. by Walter P. Wright. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1902. url p. 243.
- Commercial gardening, a practical & scientific treatise for market gardeners, market growers, fruit, flower & vegetable growers, nurserymen, etc. By many practical specialists under the editorship of John Weathers. London, The Gresham publishing company, 1913. url , p. 24.
- Compositae newsletter. Columbus, Ohio: Dept. of Botany, Ohio State University, 1975- url p. 10, p. 102, p. 49, p. 53, p. 6, p. 67, p. 9, p. 9.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1892- url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 161, p. 224, p. 383, p. 405, p. 430, p. 450, p. 513.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 16 1987 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 165.
- Cultivated plants, their propagation and improvement. Edinburgh, W. Blackwood & Sons, 1877. url p. 255.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 1 - 107 1883 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url p. 165, p. 51.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 384, p. 385.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 175, p. 635, p. 941.
- Favourite flowers of garden and greenhouse /by Edward Step. ..; the cultural directions edited by William Watson. ..; illustrated with three hundred and sixteen coloured plates, selected and arranged by D. Bois. 2 1897 London and New York: Frederick Warne & co., 1896-97. url pl. 142.
- Field, forest and garden botany: a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated / by Asa Gray. New York: American Book, c1895. url p. 249.
- Field, forest, and garden botany; a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated, by Asa Gray. .. Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company url p. 249.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 283.
- Flora barbadensis: a catalogue of plants, indigenous, naturalized, and cultivated, in Barbados: to which is prefixed, a geological description of the island /by James Dottin Maycock. 1830 London: J. Ridgeway, 1830. url p. 334.
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 408, p. 568.
- Flora of Bermuda... by Nathaniel Lord Britton... New York, Scribner, 1918. url p. 408, p. 568.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 273.
- Flora of Guatemala / Dorothy L. Nash, Louis O. Williams; genera contributed by Kenneth M. Becker. .. [et al.]. 24 1976 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1976. url p. 229, p. 230.
- Flora of New Mexico. By E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off.1915 url p. 702.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url .
- Flower gardening, New York, bMcBride, Nast & company, 1913. url , .
- Flower gardening, by H. S. Adams. New York, McBride, Nast & Company, 1913. url p. 203, p. 206.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 426, p. 473, p. 475.
- Garden colour: Spring, by Mrs. C. W. Earle; Summer, by E. V. B.; Autumn, by Rose Kingsley; Winter, by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs; etc., etc. Notes & water color sketches by Margaret Waterfield. 1905 London, E. P. Dutton & company, 1905. url p. 71.
- Gardeners' chronicle of America. New York: Chronicle Press, 1905-1950. url p. 537.
- Gardening for amateurs; a simple, complete, and practical guide for garden lovers, edited by H. H. Thomas. Illustrated by twenty-four coloured plates and many hundreds of photographs and sketches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls company,  url p. 433, p. 73.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url .
- Gardening. Chicago, the Gardening Co., 1892-1925. url p. 83, p. 90.
- Gardens past & present. By K.L. Davidson. .. Illustrated from photographs by F. Mason Good. London, T.W. Laurie url p. 225.
- Glimpses into the life of Indian plants: an elementary Indian botany / by I. Pfleiderer. Mangalore: Basel Mission Book and Tract Depository, 1916. url p. 288.
- Gray's school and field book of botany: consisting of "Lessons in botany" and "Field, forest, and garden botany": bound in one volume. New York: American Book Co., c1895. url p. 249.
- Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. .. Based on the French work of Messrs. Decaisne and Naudin. ..entitled 'Manuel de l'amateur des jardins, ' and including the original woodcuts by Riocreux and Leblanc. Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1873. url .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url .
- Hooker, W. J. & G. A. W. Arnott. The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage;comprising an acount of the plants collected by Messrs. Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition, during the voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait, performed in His Majesty's ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey. .. in the years 1825, 26, 27, and 28.By Sir William Jackson Hooker. .. and G. A. Walker Arnott. .. 1841 London, H. G. Bohn, 1841. url p. 455.
- Index of plants. 1912. Singapore, Printed at the Methodist Publishing House, 1912. url .
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 499.
- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 112.
- Journal of Hymenoptera research. Washington, D.C.: International Society of Hymenopterists, [1992- url p. 370.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 3-5 1983-1985 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 37, p. 45.
- Journal of the Federated Malay States museums. Kuala Lumpur: F.M.S. Museums, 1906-1929. url p. 162.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 36 1935 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 109.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , , p. 159, p. 160, p. 161, p. 163, p. 163.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 1454.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 404, p. 589.
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url , .
- Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. [Boston: The Academy, url p. 86.
- Molecular & general genetics: MGG. Berlin; Springer-Verlag, 1908-2001 url p. 12.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 27.
- New England farmer, and horticultural register. Boston: Joseph Breck & Co., 1839-1844. url p. 335, p. 367, p. 375.
- Our garden flowers; a popular study of their native lands, their life histories, and their structural affiliations, New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1910. url , .
- Photoperiodism and related phenomena in plants and animals; proceedings, edited by Robert B. Withrow, with the cooperation of Arthur C. Giese [and others]. Washington, 1959. url p. 350, p. 376, p. 377, p. 378, p. 880.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 290, p. 78.
- Plant culture; a working hand-book of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, by George W. Oliver. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., c1912. url , p. 302, p. 306, p. 75, p. 75.
- Plant culture; a working handbook of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, New York, A. T. De La Mare Co., Inc.[c1921] url .
- Plants for California landscapes: a catalog of drought tolerant plants. [Sacramento, Calif.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Water Resources,  url p. 92.
- Pollen / by M. Pakenham Edgeworth. London: Hardwicke & Bogue, 1877. url p. 40, p. 40.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 429, p. 578.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url , p. 820.
- Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science. Rochester, N.Y.: The Academy.1889- url p. 122.
- Radiation biology, edited by Alexander Hollaender with the cooperation of Austin M. Brues [and others]. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1954-56. url p. 489.
- Report of the botanist / G. P. Clinton. [New Haven]: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1903-1911. url p. 318.
- Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, Washington, Govt. print. off., 1875-89. url , .
- Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Made under the direction of the secretary of war, in 1853-. .. 4 1856 Washington, A.O.P. Nicholson, Printer [etc.]1855-60. url p. 104, p. 172.
- Revision of the genus Cosmos, by Earl Edward Sherff... 8 1932 Chicago, Ill.:Field Museum of Natural History, 1932. url p. 416, p. 419.
- Root-knot and its control. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 14.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 360.
- Seemann, B. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Herald: under the command of Captain Henry Kellett, R.N., C.B., during the years 1845-51 /by Berthold Seemann. 1852-1857 London: Lovell Reeve, 1852-1857. url p. 307, p. 446.
- Smithsonian contributions to knowledge. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1848-1916. url p. 111, p. 90.
- Stout manual training school; a handbook for planning and planting small home grounds. .. with a list of native and commonly cultivated plants that are represented in the collection upon the Stout manual training school grounds. Menomonie, Wis., Stout manual training school, 1899. url p. 55, p. 69.
- Synoptical flora of North America: the Gamopetalae, a second edition of vol. I, pt. II, and vol. II, pt. I / collected by Asa Gray. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1888. url p. 298.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url , , p. 165, p. 201, p. 561, p. 6.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url , p. 278.
- The Book of gardening; a handbook of horticulture. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. url .
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 414.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 118, p. 354.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 103, p. 120, p. 120, p. 121, p. 125, p. 13, p. 137, p. 148, p. 15, p. 161, p. 162, p. 172, p. 175, p. 186, p. 188, p. 190, p. 211, p. 216, p. 217, p. 218, p. 221, p. 228, p. 235, p. 236, p. 236, p. 24, p. 244, p. 251, p. 269, p. 272, p. 275, p. 288, p. 296, p. 30, p. 303, p. 31, p. 329, p. 336, p. 336, p. 338, p. 343, p. 345, p. 35, p. 358, p. 360, p. 361, p. 38, p. 383, p. 390, p. 391, p. 402, p. 408, p. 421, p. 437, p. 450, p. 453, p. 462, p. 476, p. 486, p. 488, p. 495, p. 503, p. 509, p. 512, p. 541, p. 591, p. 595, p. 61, p. 68, p. 71, p. 77, p. 80, p. 80.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url , p. 250.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , p. 101, p. 128, p. 240, p. 256, p. 320, p. 320, p. 331, p. 336, p. 34, p. 393, p. 396, p. 411, p. 430, p. 435, p. 478, p. 50, p. 577, p. 727, p. 779, p. 855.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 473.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 650.
- The Monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture. Sacramento, Calif.: The Commission, 1911-1919. url p. 753.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 134, p. 298.
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 493.
- The Queensland flora: Queensland, Printed by H. J. Diddams & co., 1899-1902. url , .
- The University of Colorado studies. Boulder, University of Colorado. url p. 261, p. 264.
- The book of annuals: a pictorial guide to the choice and culture of fifty of the most dependable plants that flower the first year from seed / New York: McBride, Nast, 1913. url , .
- The book of annuals; New York, McBride, Nast & company, 1913. url p. 55, p. 7, p. 9.
- The botany of Bihar and Orissa: an account of all the known indigenous plants of the province and of the most important or most commonly cultivated exotic ones / with maps and introduction by H. H. Haines. London: Printed by Adlard and sold by agents for Indian Official Publications, 1921-25. url p. 484.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 240, p. 240, p. 242.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 151, p. 153, p. 388.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The flowering process. New York, Macmillan, 1963. url p. 209.
- The garden month by month; describing the appearance, color, dates of bloom and cultivation of all desirable, hardy plants for the formal or wild garden, with additional lists of aquatics, vines, etc., New York, F. A. Stokes Company url p. 490.
- The genus Bidens. .. by Earl Edward Sherff. 16 1937 Chicago, 1937. url p. 636, p. 638, p. 639.
- The illustrated dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists. Ed. by George Nicholson. Assisted by Professor J. W. H. Trail and J. Garrett. London: L. U. Gill, -89. url p. 386.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url .
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 3586, p. 861, p. 862.
- The unheated greenhouse, by K. L. Davidson. [London]"Country life, " ltd. [etc.]1907. url p. 112, p. 242.
- The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine-Barrens: an ecologic investigation / by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia: Christopher Sower Company, 1916. url p. 173.
- The weed flora of Iowa / [by L. H. Pammel; with the collaboration of Charlotte M. King. .. et al.] Des Moines: Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 696.
- The weed flora of Iowa Des Moines, Iowa geological survey, 1913. url .
- The weed flora of Iowa. .. Des Moines, Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 696.
- Torrey, J. Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey: made under the direction of the secretary of the Interior /by William H. Emory, major First Cavalry, and United States commissioner. Washington: C. Wendell, printer, 1857-59. url p. 242, p. 242.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 135, p. 49.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 41.
- Vernalization and photoperiodism, a symposium by A. E. Murneek [and others] Foreword by Kenneth V. Thimann. Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1948. url p. 45, p. 80.
- Yard and garden; a book of practical information for the amateur gardener in city, town or suburb, Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill company url p. 386.
- Pandey, A. K., S. Chopra, and R. P. Singh. 1986. Development and structure of seeds and fruits in Compositae: Cosmos species. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 65: 362-368.
- Sherff, E. E. 1955. Cosmos. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora. 47+ vols. New York. Ser. 2, part. 2, pp. 130-146.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 13, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658398
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-332
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:198320-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 11680
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37162
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST2N010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: COBI2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 32678
- Robert W. Kiger "Cosmos". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 184, 203. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Cosmos bipinnatus". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 203, 204. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 218.010 meters (715.256 feet), Standard Deviation = 370.810 based on 424 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]