Common Names in English:
, rarely subshrubs
. Stems and branches usually swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, decussate, rarely alternate or verticillate
, entire, usually connate
; stipules scarious
, or often absent. Inflorescence of cymes or cymose
panicles, rarely flowers solitary or few in racemes
, capitula, pseudoverticillasters, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
, occasionally cleistogamous
. Sepals (4 or) 5, free
, imbricate, or connate into a tube
, leaflike or scarious, persistent
, sometimes bracteate
below calyx. Petals (4 or) 5, rarely absent, free, often comprising claw
and limb; limb entire or split, usually with coronal scales
at juncture of claw and limb. Stamens (2--) 5--10, in 1 or 2 series. Pistil 1; carpels 2--5, united
into a compound
ovary. Ovary superior, 1-loculed or basally imperfectly 2--5-loculed. Gynophore
present or absent. Placentation free, central, rarely basal; ovules (1 or) few or numerous
, campylotropous. Styles (1 or) 2--5, sometimes united at base. Fruit usually a capsule, with pericarp crustaceous
, scarious, or papery
, dehiscing by teeth or valves
1 or 2 Ã— as many as styles, rarely berrylike with irregular dehiscence or an achene. Seeds 1 to numerous, reniform
, or rarely dorsiventrally compressed
, abaxially grooved
, or sharply pointed
, rarely fimbriate-pectinate; testa granular
, rarely smooth
; embryo strongly curved
and surrounding perisperm
or straight but eccentric
; perisperm mealy.
Between 75 and 80 genera and ca. 2000 species: widespread but mainly of temperate or warm-temperate occurrence in the N hemisphere, with principal centers of distribution in the Mediterranean region and W Asia to W China and the Himalayas, fewer species in Africa S of the Sahara, America, and Oceania; 30 genera (two endemic) and 390 species (193 endemic) in China.
Arenaria, Silene, and Stellaria contain over half the species in the family in China. They are mostly concentrated in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau , and are especially rich from the Hengduan Mountains to the Himalayas. The main uses of this family are medicinal and ornamental . Dianthus superbus, Pseudostellaria heterophylla, Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata, and Vaccaria hispanica are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine . Some species of Arenaria, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Psammosilene, and Silene are used as medicinal herbs among the people or are habitually used in local Chinese medicine. Many species of Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, and Silene are grown as ornamentals. Atocion armeria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ( Silene armeria Linnaeus), native to Russia and Europe, is also cultivated in China. It differs from Silene in having a corymbose inflorescence and obscure calyx veins. Wu Cheng-yih, Ke Ping, Zhou Li-hua, Tang Chang-lin & Lu De-quan. 1996. Caryophyllaceae. In: Tang Chang-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 47â€“449.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: cream, pale green, tan
Size: under 6" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,118 meters (0 to 13,510 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Lychnis baccifera (L.) Scop.
: L. Publication
A tentatively accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Cucubalus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Departamento de Biolog. Veg. II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: MAF
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5832062
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:152887-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 152887-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 645437
- Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Caryophyllaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 187.970 meters (616.699 feet), Standard Deviation = 228.670 based on 2,842 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]