Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Birdeye Pearlwort, Bird-Eye Pearlwort, Birdseye Pearlwort, Matted Pearlwort, Pearlwort, Procumbent Pearlwort, Spreading Pearlwort
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Swedish:
, rarely subshrubs
. Stems and branches usually swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, decussate, rarely alternate or verticillate
, entire, usually connate
; stipules scarious
, or often absent. Inflorescence of cymes or cymose
panicles, rarely flowers solitary or few in racemes
, capitula, pseudoverticillasters, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
, occasionally cleistogamous
. Sepals (4 or) 5, free
, imbricate, or connate into a tube
, leaflike or scarious, persistent
, sometimes bracteate
below calyx. Petals (4 or) 5, rarely absent, free, often comprising claw
and limb; limb entire or split, usually with coronal scales
at juncture of claw and limb. Stamens (2--) 5--10, in 1 or 2 series. Pistil 1; carpels 2--5, united
into a compound
ovary. Ovary superior, 1-loculed or basally imperfectly 2--5-loculed. Gynophore
present or absent. Placentation free, central, rarely basal; ovules (1 or) few or numerous
, campylotropous. Styles (1 or) 2--5, sometimes united at base. Fruit usually a capsule, with pericarp crustaceous
, scarious, or papery
, dehiscing by teeth or valves
1 or 2 Ã— as many as styles, rarely berrylike with irregular dehiscence or an achene. Seeds 1 to numerous, reniform
, or rarely dorsiventrally compressed
, abaxially grooved
, or sharply pointed
, rarely fimbriate-pectinate; testa granular
, rarely smooth
; embryo strongly curved
and surrounding perisperm
or straight but eccentric
; perisperm mealy.
Between 75 and 80 genera and ca. 2000 species: widespread but mainly of temperate or warm-temperate occurrence in the N hemisphere, with principal centers of distribution in the Mediterranean region and W Asia to W China and the Himalayas, fewer species in Africa S of the Sahara, America, and Oceania; 30 genera (two endemic) and 390 species (193 endemic) in China.
Arenaria, Silene, and Stellaria contain over half the species in the family in China. They are mostly concentrated in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau , and are especially rich from the Hengduan Mountains to the Himalayas. The main uses of this family are medicinal and ornamental . Dianthus superbus, Pseudostellaria heterophylla, Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata, and Vaccaria hispanica are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine . Some species of Arenaria, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Psammosilene, and Silene are used as medicinal herbs among the people or are habitually used in local Chinese medicine. Many species of Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, and Silene are grown as ornamentals. Atocion armeria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ( Silene armeria Linnaeus), native to Russia and Europe, is also cultivated in China. It differs from Silene in having a corymbose inflorescence and obscure calyx veins. Wu Cheng-yih, Ke Ping, Zhou Li-hua, Tang Chang-lin & Lu De-quan. 1996. Caryophyllaceae. In: Tang Chang-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 47â€“449.
, winter-annual, or perennial
, often cespitose or matted
. Taproots slender. Stems ascending
, or procumbent
or branched, terete
to slightly angular. Leaves: basal and secondary rosettes present in perennial species, usually connate
proximally, sometimes forming conspicuous
, sessile, with or without axillary
fascicles of leaves; blade
, succulent or not, apex acute to mucronate
(or long-aristate in S. subulata). Inflorescences terminal
or axillary cymes, or flowers solitary; bracts paired
. Pedicels erect
. Flowers: perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals 4 or 5, distinct
, green or sometimes purple (in S. nivalis and S. decumbens), lanceolate to elliptic
or orbiculate, 1-5.5 mm, herbaceous, margins
white or purple, scarious, apex obtuse
to somewhat acute, frequently hood-shaped in bud; petals 4 or 5, sometimes absent (frequently absent or soon dropping in annual species
), white, claw
absent or minute, blade apex entire; nectaries at base
opposite sepals; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10, arising from base of ovary; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; styles 4 or 5, clavate
, 0.5-1.5 mm, glabrous
proximally; stigmas 4 or 5, subterminal
to linear along adaxial
surface of styles, minutely papillate
(30×). Capsules globose
, opening by 4 or 5 valves
, sutures running
to base, but in some species dehiscing only ca.
1/ 1/ 2 capsule length
; carpophore absent. Seeds ca. 125, light tan to dark or reddish brown, obliquely triangular with abaxial
, or reniform
to nearly globose without abaxial groove (except S. nodosa, which is intermediate), laterally compressed
or plump, smooth
absent. x = 6, 7, 11.
Species 15-20: chiefly cold-temperate Northern Hemisphere, also on some tropical mountains.
Species Sagina procumbens
Plants perennial , often mat-forming, glabrous . Stems as-cending or, more frequently, procumbent , rooting at nodes, giving rise to secondary tufts or rosettes, few- to many-branched, slender. Leaves: axillary fascicles often present on procumbent stems; basal frequently in primary rosettes in younger plants ; blade linear , 8-17 mm, herbaceous, apex apiculate to somewhat aristate , glabrous; cauline not conspicuously connate basally, never forming an inflated cup , blade linear, 4-15 mm proximally, becoming shorter toward apex, 2.5-6 mm distally, sometimes slightly fleshy , apex apiculate to aristate, rarely with minute glandular cilia. Pedicels frequently recurved during capsule development, filiform , glabrous. Flowers axillary or terminal , 4-merous, occasionally 4- and 5-merous; calyx base glabrous; sepals elliptic to orbiculate, 1.5-(-2.5) mm, hyaline margins white, never purple tinged, apex obtuse to rounded , appressed during capsular development, divergent following dehiscence; petals (1-) 4(-5), orbiculate to elliptic, 0.8-1(-1.5) mm, shorter than or equaling sepals, or sometimes absent; stamens 4 (8). Capsules (1.5-) 2-2.5(-3) mm, slightly exceeding sepals, dehiscing to base. Seeds brown, obliquely triangular with distinct abaxial groove , (0.3-) 0.4(-0.5) mm, smooth to pebbled. 2n = 22. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: green, near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Weedy, wet or damp, gravelly or sandy soils along roadsides, sidewalk cracks, margins of paths or lawns, pond and lake margins, coastal rocks and sands, sea cliffs ; 0-3500 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,840 meters (0 to 6,037 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Caryophyllaceae () - Durande, 1782 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - cariophyllacées, pinks
- Suborder: Caryophyllineae () -
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Alsine procumbens (L.) Crantz • Sagina procumbens var. compacta Lange
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Sagina
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. apetala (Annual Pearlwort) · S. apetala apetala (Annual Pearlwort) · S. caespitosa (Tufted Pearlwort) · S. decumbens (Beach Pearlwort) · S. decumbens occidentalis (Western Pearlwort) · S. decumbens subsp. occidentalis (Western Pearlwort) · S. japonica (Japanese Pearlwort) · S. maritima (Sea Pearlwort) · S. maxima (Stickystem Pearlwort) · S. maxima subsp. crassicaulis (Stickystem Pearlwort) · S. nivalis (Snow Pearlwort) · S. nodosa (Knotted Pearlwort) · S. nodosa borealis (Knotted Pearlwort) · S. nodosa subsp. borealis (Knotted Pearlwort) · S. procumbens (Birdeye Pearlwort) · S. saginoides (Alpine Pearlwort) · S. subulata (Awl-Leaf Pearlwort) · S. subulata var. glabrata 'Aurea' (Awl-Leaf Pearlwort) · S. subulata 'Aurea' (Aurea Scotch Moss)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, GEO Biodiversity Day
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2646396
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-20034
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3027485
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:156508-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 310846
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 20034
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SAPRC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 58698
- Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Caryophyllaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Garrett E. Crow "Sagina". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Sagina procumbens". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 181.800 meters (596.457 feet), Standard Deviation = 239.410 based on 12,008 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]