- Look for Arrowheads in ponds and slow-moving streams . The male flowers are the yellow-centered ones on the top of the stalk and the female flowers are the green-centered flowers.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Arrowhead, Broad-Leaved Arrowhead, Broadleaf Arrowhead, Common Arrowhead, Duck Potato, Duck-Potato, Muskrat-Potato, Wapato, Wapatoo
Common Names in French:
Flèche D´eau, Sagittaire Commune, Sagittaire Latifoliée, Sagittaire Latifoliee
Common Names in German:
Gemeines Pfeilkraut, Veränderliches Pfeilkraut
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Swedish:
, or cormose, caulescent
to stellate-pubescent; sap
or not septate. Leaves basal, submersed
, floating, or emersed
, sessile or petiolate
markings of dots or lines
present or absent, basal lobes present or absent; venation
veins parallel from base
of blade to apex, secondary veins reticulate. Inflorescences scapose
or panicles, rarely umbels, erect
, rarely floating or decumbent
(forming racemes) or whorls branching (forming panicles), bracteolate
. Flowers bisexual
, if unisexual, staminate
on same or different plants
, hypogynous, subsessile
to long-pedicellate; sepals persistent
, 3; petals deciduous, 3, delicate; stamens 0, 6, 9, or to 30, distinct
2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistils 0 or 6--1500 or more, distinct or coherent proximally, 1-loculed; placentation basal; ovules1--2. Fruits achenes or follicles. Seeds: embryo U-shaped; endosperm absent in mature
Genera 12, species ca. 80 (4 genera, 34 species in the flora ) : nearly worldwide, primarily tropical and subtropical regions.
, rarely annual
, floating-leaved, or emersed
to sparsely pubescent
; rhizomes often present, occasionally terminated by tubers; stolons often present; corms absent; tubers white to brown, smooth
. Leaves sessile or petiolate
to triangular; blade
markings absent, linear
attenuate to hastate or sagittate
entire, apex round
to acute. Inflorescences racemes
, panicles, rarely umbels, of 1--17 whorls, erect
, emersed or floating, rarely submersed; bracts coarse
or delicate, apex obtuse
to acute, smooth or papillose
proximally to distally. Flowers unisexual
, the proximal
rarely with ring
stamens; staminate flowers
, distal to pistillate
flowers; pistillate flowers mostly pedicellate, rarely sessile; bracts subtending
pedicels, lanceolate, shorter than pedicels, apex obtuse to acute; pedicels ascending
to recurved; receptacle convex
; sepals recurved in staminate flowers, recurved to erect in pistillate flowers, often sculptured
, herbaceous to leathery; petals white, rarely with pink spot or tinge, entire; stamens 7--30; filaments
linear to dilated
, glabrous to pubescent; pistils to 1500 or more, spirally arranged
, not radiating in starlike pattern
; ovules 1; styles terminal
. Fruits without longitudinal
, abaxially keeled
or not, abaxial
often present, lateral
wing often present, 1, curved
Species ca. 30: mostly Western Hemisphere; Europe; Asia.
Species Sagittaria latifolia
, to 45 cm; rhizomes absent; stolons present; corms
present. Leaves emersed
6.5--51 cm; blade
, rarely hastate, 1.5--30.5 ´ 2--17
cm, basal lobes
equal to or less than remainder of blade. Inflorescences
, rarely panicles, of 3--9 whorls, emersed, 4.5--28.5 ´
4--23 cm; peduncles 10--59 cm; bracts connate
more than or equal
to ¼ total length, elliptic
to lanceolate, 3--8 mm, delicate,
; fruiting pedicels spreading
, 0.5--3.5 cm.
Flowers to 4 cm diam.; sepals recurved to spreading, not enclosing
flower or fruiting head
, without ring
Fruiting heads 1--1.7 cm diam; achenes oblanceoloid, without abaxial
keel, 2.5--3.5 ´ to 2 mm, beaked
(0--) 1(--2) ; beak
, horizontal, 1--2 mm.
2n = 22. [source]
Sagittaria latifolia has been divided into numerous species and varieties. It was divided into two varieties, based upon the presence of pubescence over the entire vegetative plant (C. Bogin 1955; K . Rataj 1972). We have examined numerous specimens and found that many from the southeastern United States are pubescent ; we believe that this character alone is insufficient for recognition of the varieties. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: to 24" tall.
Wet ditches, pools
, and margins
; 0--1500 m
Arrowheads are found in shallow water around the edges of swamps and marshes throughout much of North America.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,018 meters (0 to 9,902 feet).
Ecology: The starchy tubers that grow along their roots are relished by ducks and geese, giving them the common name "Duck Potato." Native Americans also used the tubers as a food source, grinding them into coarse flour .
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: 3-5 hours full sun recommended.
Moisture: Water Requirements: 0-6" water depth.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Alismatanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Alismatidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Sagitta latifolia (Willd.) Nieuwl. • Sagittaria chinensis Pursh • Sagittaria engelmanniana longirostra (Micheli) Bogin • Sagittaria esculenta T. J. Howell • Sagittaria latifolia var. latifolia Willd. • Sagittaria latifolia var. obtusa (Engelm.) Wieg. • Sagittaria latifolia var. obtusa (Muhlenberg) Wiegand • Sagittaria latifolia var. pubescens (Muhl. Ex Nutt.) J. G. Sm. • Sagittaria longirostra (Micheli) J. G. Sm. • Sagittaria obtusa Muhl. Ex Willd. • Sagittaria ornithorhyncha Small • Sagittaria planipes Fernald • Sagittaria pubescens Muhl. Ex Nutt. • Sagittaria pubescens Muhlenberg • Sagittaria sagittifolia L. fo. latifolia (Willd.) Britton • Sagittaria Sagittifolia Latifolia • Sagittaria variabilis Engelm. ex A.Gray var. latifolia (Willd.) Engelm. • Sagittaria variabilis var. obtusa Engelm. • Sagittaria viscosa C. Mohr
Publishing author : Willd. Publication : Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(1): 409 1805
Members of the genus Sagittaria
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 39 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. ambigua (Kansas Arrowhead) · S. australis (Appalachian Arrowhead) · S. brevirostra (Midwestern Arrowhead) · S. calycina (Hooded Arrowhead) · S. calycina var. calycina (Hooded Arrowhead) · S. calycina var. spongiosa (Spongy Arrow-Head) · S. calycina var. spongiosa Engelm. (Spongy Arrow-Head) · S. cordifolia (Creeping Burrhead) · S. cristata (Crested Arrowhead) · S. cuneata (Arrowhead) · S. engelmanniana (Acid-Water Arrowhead) · S. fasciculata (Bunched Arrowhead) · S. filiformis (Awl-Leaf Arrowhead) · S. graminea (Grass-Leaf Arrowhead) · S. graminea var. chapmanii (Chapman's Arrowhead) · S. graminea var. graminea (Grassy Arrowhead) · S. graminea var. weatherbiana (Weatherby's Arrowhead) · S. graminea weatherbiana (Grass-Leaf Arrowhead) · S. graminea 'Crushed Ice' (Crushed Ice Narrow Leafed Arrowhead) · S. guayanensis (Guyanese Arrowhead) · S. intermedia (Intermediate Arrowhead) · S. isoetiformis (Quillwort Arrowhead) · S. kurziana (Springtape) · S. lancifolia (Arrowhead) · S. lancifolia f. ruminoides (Red Stemmed Saggitaria) · S. lancifolia subsp. media (Bulltongue Arrowhead) · S. latifolia (Arrowhead) · S. longiloba (Gregg's Arrowhead) · S. montevidensis (Aztec Arrowhead) · S. papillosa (Nipplebract Arrowhead) · S. platyphylla (Delta Arrowhead) · S. pygmaea (Pygmy Arrowhead) · S. rigida (Sessile-Fruited Arrowhead) · S. sagittifolia (Arrowhead) · S. sanfordii (Sanfords Arrowhead) · S. secundifolia (Kral's Water Plantain) · S. subulata (Awl-Leaf Arrowhead) · S. teres (Quill-Leaved Sagittaria) · S. trifolia (Threeleaf Arrowhead)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2659682
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-287247
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:58518-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 101379
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 38908
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 225280-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SAVI12
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 57246
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- Mean = 265.100 meters (869.751 feet), Standard Deviation = 340.170 based on 1,177 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]