- Spartina alterniflora was first introduced to China from North America in 1979. From eight initial plantings in 1985 it has spread rapidly in suitable habitats along the whole Chinese coast. It is used to protect coastal dykes from tidal erosion and to promote sediment build-up for polder formation. Plantations are also used for pasture and cut for green manure and forage . [source]
Common Names in English:
Atlantic Cordgrass, Salt Marsh Cordgrass, Salt-Water Cordgrass, Saltmarsh Cordgrass, Smooth Cordgrass, Smooth Cordgrass Spartina Alterniflora
, usually with wide spreading
. Leaf blades
long, tough; ligule a line
. Inflorescence of racemes
, these subdigitate or disposed along an axis, few to many; spikelets
; rachis triquetrous
, terminating in a naked point
. Spikelets strongly laterally compressed
, lanceolate or narrowly oblong
, floret 1, without rachilla extension
and falling entire; glumes unequal, keeled
; lower glume shorter than floret; upper glume longer than floret, papery
, 1-3-veined, sometimes additional veins present, apex narrowly acute to shortly awned
; lemma keeled, firm with wide membranous margins
veins obscure, apex subacute
; palea equaling or exceeding lemma. Lodicules often absent. Caryopsis fusiform
, embryo nearly as long as caryopsis. x = 10.
Seventeen species: both coasts of the Americas, Atlantic coasts of Europe and Africa, especially in temperate and subtropical regions; two species (both introduced ) in China.
This genus is adapted to the saline environment of the coast. Species with spreading rhizomes form colonies in tidal saltmarshes and are particularly suitable for stabilizing coastal mud flats.
Species Spartina alterniflora
Perennial with soft fleshy rhizomes. Culms stout, forming large clumps , erect , (0.5-) 1-2(-3) m tall, ca. 1 cm in diam. Leaf sheaths mostly longer than internodes, smooth ; leaf blades linear-lanceolate, flat, 10-90 × 1-2 cm, smooth or margins minutely scabrous , tapering to long hard involute apex; ligule ca. 1 mm. Racemes racemosely arranged, (5-) 10-20, 5-20 cm, slender, erect or slightly spreading ; spikelets scarcely overlapping; rachis smooth, terminating in a bristle up to 3 cm. Spikelets ca. 10 mm, glabrous or nearly so; lower glume linear , 1/2-2/3 as long as spikelet, acute; upper glume ovate-lanceolate, as long as spikelet, glabrous or with very short hairs on keel, subacute ; lemma lanceolate-oblong to narrowly ovate , glabrous; palea slightly longer than lemma. Anthers 5-6 mm. 2n = 62. [source]
Size: 24-36" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 48 meters (159 feet).
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Series: href="http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/493 ()
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Spartina alterniflora var. glabra (Muhl. Ex Bigelow) Fern. • Spartina alterniflora var. pilosa (Merr.) Fern. • Spartina glabra Muhl. ex Elliott var. alterniflora (Loisel.) Merr. • Spartina glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott var. alterniflora (Loiseleur) Merrill • Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald Var. alterni-Flora (Loiseleur) St. -Yves • Spartina stricta Roth var. alterniflora (Loiseleur) A. Gray • Trachynotia alterniflora (Loiseleur) Candolle.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Spartina
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 15 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. alterniflora (Atlantic Cordgrass) · S. anglica (Common Cord Grass) · S. bakeri (Sand Cordgrass) · S. caespitosa (Short Cordgrass) · S. cynosuroides (Big Cordgrass) · S. densiflora (Denseflower Cordgrass) · S. foliosa (California Cordgrass) · S. gracilis (Alkali Cordgrass) · S. maritima (Small Cordgrass) · S. patens (Marshhay Cordgrass) · S. pectinata (Cord Grass) · S. pectinata 'Aureomarginata' (Prairie Cord Grass) · S. spartinae (Gulf Cordgrass) · S. townsendii (Townsend's Cordgrass) · S. × townsendii (Townsend's Cordgrass)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2661334
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-41267
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:422425-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 103562
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 41267
- MoBot NameID: 25512520
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SPALP
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 63704
- Bi-xing Sun & Sylvia M. Phillips "Spartina". in Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 1, 488, 493. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Spartina alterniflora". in Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 493, 494. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 96.560 based on 256 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]