Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ma Bian Cao
Common Names in English:
Herb of the Cross, Common Verbena, Common Vervain, Kumatsuzura, Ma Bian Cao, Pigeon's-Grass, Simplers Joy, Vervain
Common Names in Italian:
Erba Di San Giovanni, Verbena
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Erva-De-Ferro, Ferraria, Planta-Da-Sorte, Verbena
Common Names in Romanian:
, sometimes climbing
shrubs, rarely herbs. Indumentum of simple
, and/or other complex
. Leaves opposite or rarely whorled
, without stipules, simple or 3-foliolate, less often palmately [or pinnately] compound
. Inflorescences terminal
, racemose, cymose
, or thyrses
. Flowers bisexual
or polygamous by abortion
, zygomorphic or rarely actinomorphic
. Calyx persistent
. Corolla 4- or 5- or more lobed
on corolla tube
, alternate with lobes; filaments
, 1- or 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal
slits or sometimes a circular pore
. Ovary entire or 4-grooved, 2-8-locular; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, erect
or pendulous. Style terminal, simple, entire or 2-cleft. Fruit a drupe or indehiscent capsule, sometimes breaking up into nutlets
. Seeds (1 or) 2-4, endosperm usually absent, seed coat
thin; embryo straight, as long as seed; radicle short, inferior.
Some 91 genera and ca. 2000 species: primarily tropical and subtropical , 20 genera and 182 species in China.
The classification of Verbenaceae is in a state of flux, especially regarding its relationship to Lamiaceae. There is evidence to suggest a significant division between members of subfamily Verbenoideae, genera 1-5 in this account, and the remaining genera, including genera 6-20, which for convenience are here referred to as subfamily Viticoideae s.l. The latter are more closely allied to each other and to genera traditionally kept within Lamiaceae (including genera 1-8 in this Flora ) . Avicennia is often placed in a family of its own, but its affinities are clearly with Viticoideae, especially genera 17-19 in this account which have traditionally been placed in a separate subfamily, Symphorematoideae.
Herbs or subshrubs
. Branches 4-veined. Leaves opposite, sessile, dentate
, or pinnatifid
. Spikes usually terminal
or branched; bracts small. Flowers alternate, nearly zygomorphic. Calyx membranous, 5-dentate. Corolla with a distinct
5, unequal, spreading
. Stamens 4, fertile
of corolla tube, included
. Ovary 4-locular; ovules erect
, 1 per locule. Capsules dry, included in calyx, dehiscing into 4 1-seeded pyrenes.
About 250 species: chiefly in tropical America.
Species Verbena officinalis
Herbs, annual or weakly perennial , erect , 30-140 cm tall, pubescent to subglabrous. Leaves narrowed into a petiole 0.3-4 cm; leaf blade ovate , obovate , or oblong , 2-8 X 1-5 cm, papery , hirsute especially on abaxial veins, margin coarsely dentate or cut to sometimes deeply pinnatifid or lobed . Spikes long, slender; bracts as long as calyx. Calyx 1-4 mm, pubescent, glandular . Corolla blue to pink, (2-) 4-8 mm, pubescent. Ovary glabrous . Nutlets oblong, ca. 2 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = 14. [source]
Flowers: Large blooms cover the plant in an array of color. Blooms repeatedly in May, June, July, August, September. Flowers have five petals, and are borne in dense spikes. Attracts bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. • Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: lavender, violet
Size: 18-24" tall.
Landscape Uses: Beds . Hanging baskets. Mixed container plantings . • Care: Heat tolerant . Drought tolerant. Suitable for growing in hot, desert climates. Feed regularly with a balanced fertilizer , or use a slow-release fertilizer in the soil or container . Mulch with dry straw in cold winter areas. Watch for spider mites in very dry climates.
Grassy places on mountain slopes ; 100-1800 m. .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,028 meters (0 to 13,215 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Prefers fertile , well-drained soil. • Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water frequently and thoroughly during hot weather. Avoid drying out.
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 0°F. • Cold Hardiness: 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lamianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Verbena
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 136 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
V. abramsii (San Bernardino Vervain) · V. allenii (Allen's Verbena) · V. blanchardii (Blanchard's Verbena) · V. bonariensis (Brazilian Verbena) · V. bonariensis var. bonariensis (Purpletop Vervain) · V. bonariensis var. conglomerata (Purpletop Vervain) · V. bracteata (Bigbract Verbena) · V. brasiliensis (Brazilian Vervain) · V. californica (Red Hills Vervain) · V. canadensis 'Aztec Pink' (Aztec Pink Trailing Verbena) · V. canadensis 'Aztec Wild Rose' (Aztec Wild Rose Trailing Verbena) · V. canadensis 'Homestead Pink' (Homestead Pink Verbena) · V. canadensis 'Homestead Purple' (Homestead Purple Verbena) · V. canadensis 'Imagination' (Imagination Creeping Verbena) · V. canadensis'Ron Deal' (Ron Deal Varvain) · V. canadensis 'Taylortown Red' (Red Clump Verbena) · V. canadensis 'Texas Form' (Creeping Vervain) · V. canescens (Gray Vervain) · V. carolina (Carolina Vervain) · V. cayennensis (Blue Snakeweed) · V. ciliata 'Pink Sunrise' (Creeping Vervain) · V. clemensiorum (Amador County Vervain) · V. cloverae (Clover's Vervain) · V. corymbosa (Verbena) · V. crookshanksii (Crookshank's Verbena) · V. deamii (Deam's Verbena) · V. Donalena Twinkle Pink (Vervain [donalena Twinkle Pink]) · V. ehrenbergiana (Ehrenberg's Vervain) · V. engelmannii (Engelmann's Verbena) · V. goodmanii (Goodman's Verbena) · V. gracilis (Fort Huachuca Verbena) · V. halei (Slender Verbena) · V. hastata (Blue Verbena) · V. hastata var. hastata (Swamp Verbena) · V. hastata var. scabra (Swamp Verbena) · V. hastata 'Alba' (White Vervain) · V. illicita (Illicit Verbena) · V. lappulacea (Catstongue) · V. lasiostachys (Western Vervain) · V. lasiostachys var. lasiostachys (Western Vervain) · V. litoralis (Seashore Vervain) · V. macdougalii (Hillside Verbena) · V. menthifolia (Mint Vervain) · V. moechina (Verbena) · V. montevidensis (Uruguayan Vervain) · V. neomexicana (Hillside Vervain) · V. neomexicana var. hirtella (New Mexico Verbena) · V. neomexicana var. neomexicana (New Mexican Verbena) · V. neomexicana var. xylopoda (Hillside Vervain) · V. officinalis (Herb of the Cross) · V. officinalis var. officinalis (Herb of the Cross) · V. officinalis var. prostrata (Prostrate Verbena) · V. pedula 'Superbena Pink Shades' (Superbena Pink Shades Verbena) · V. perennis (Perennial Verbena) · V. perriana (Verbena) · V. peruviana 'Saint Paul' (Saint Paul Verbena) · V. pinetorum (Chihuahuan Vervain) · V. plicata (Fan-Leaf Vervain) · V. plicata Greene var. degeneri Moldenke (Fan-Leaf Vervain) · V. plicata var. degeneri (Degener's Vervain) · V. plicata var. plicata (Fanleaf Vervain) · V. polystachya (Verbena) · V. rigida (Rigid Verbena) · V. rigida 'Polaris' (Rough Verbena) · V. rigida 'Santos' (Rough Verbena) · V. riparia (Riverbank Vervain) · V. runyonii (Rio Grande Vervain) · V. rydbergii (Rydberg's Verbena) · V. scabra (Sandpaper Vervain) · V. simplex (Narrow-Leaved Vervain) · V. speciosa 'Imagination' (Trailing Verbena) · V. stricta (Hoary Verbena) · V. stuprosa (Verbena) · V. supina (Procumbent Vervain) · V. Tapien Pink Parfait = 'Suntapipipa' (Vervain [tapien Pink Parfait]) · V. Tapien Red (Vervain [tapien Red]) · V. tenera 'Sissinghurst' (Alpine Verbena) · V. tenera 'Sissinghurst Pink' (Pink Vervain) · V. urticifolia (White Verbena) · V. urticifolia var. incarnata (White Vervain) · V. urticifolia var. leiocarpa (White Vervain) · V. urticifolia var. simplex (White Vervain) · V. urticifolia var. urticifolia (White Vervain) · V. xutha (Gulf Vervain) · V. × allenii (Allen's Verbena) · V. × blanchardii (Blanchard's Verbena) · V. × deamii (Deam's Verbena) · V. × engelmannii (Engelmann's Verbena) · V. × goodmanii (Goodman's Verbena) · V. × illicita (Illicit Verbena) · V. × moechina (Verbena) · V. × perriana (Verbena) · V. × rydbergii (Rydberg's Verbena) · V. × stuprosa (Verbena) · V. x 'Silver Anne' (Silver Anne Garden Verbena) · V. 'Aztec Pink Magic' (Verbena) · V. 'Aztec Red' (Red Verbena) · V. 'Babylon Blue' (Verbena) · V. 'Babylon Carpet Blue' (Babylon Carpet Blue Verbena) · V. 'Babylon Deep Pink' (Verbena)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2654876
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-32110
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4462689
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:865346-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 41164
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 32110
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 865346-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: VEOFP
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 64968
- Shou-liang Chen & Michael G. Gilbert "Verbenaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Verbena". in Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 3. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Verbena officinalis". in Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 3. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 160.690 meters (527.198 feet), Standard Deviation = 218.480 based on 9,283 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]