The Decapterus russelli with its common name Indian Scad, and it is also called the Northern mackerel scad, slender scad, Russell’s mackerel scad, round scad, or the three lined grunters, is a type of ray-finned fish which belongs to the genus named Decapterus. This belongs to a family of Carangidae.

These types of fish are majorly found in the Indian Ocean. It has colonized the eastern Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Moreover, it is an essential species in waterfront fisheries all through its range.

Decapterus russelli has a fairly slim, an elongate and marginally compacted body. Besides this, the eyes are of normal size and have a well-grown fat eyelid which totally covers eye separated from a vertical slit which has the pupil in its middle.

Decapterus russelli

The scales on the head don’t touch a line going through the focal point of a pupil. The horizontal line has a low normal curve towards the head and the bent and straight parts meet beneath the second dorsal fins between eleventh to thirteenth delicate rays.

There are 42-62 scales in the curve part of the parallel line and somewhere in the range of 0 and 4 scutes, while the straight part has 0 to 4 scales which are trailed by 30 to 40 scutes, implying that the aggregate check of scutes and scales is somewhere in the range of 77 and 102m if caudal scutes are rejected.

There is a transparent or dusky film at the join of the upper jaw, the back end of the upper jaw is straight above and somewhat sunken and not flat anteroventrally. The two jaws bear a front row of tiny teeth which is very unpredictable and irregular with a solitary arrangement of back teeth.

Furthermore, there are 30 to 39 lower gill rakers and 10-14 upper gill rakers making an aggregate of 41 to 53 on the first-gill curve.

The shoulder support has 3 little papillae on its edge, the lower one being the bigger. There are two broadly separate dorsal blades, the first is triangular with eight spines similarly the other has one spine with 28-33 delicate rays.

The butt-centric blade has 2 withdrawn spines pursued by a solitary spine and 25-29 delicate beams; the terminal dorsal and butt-centric delicate rays comprise of a broadly confined finlet. Furthermore, the pectoral blade estimates 76.5 to 97.0% of the head length.

In life, it is pale blue-green above and from underneath it is silvery with a little dark smudge on the edge of operculum close to its upper edge.

Besides this, the Caudal fins fluctuate from translucent to dull dark color, the second dorsal fin is translucent at its bottom but has light brownish-black towards the edge; alternate balances are typically translucent, other than the pelvic fins of grown-up males which are somewhat darker.

The rays and spines on the anal and dorsal fin are greyish, those on other finds are white. Although its length is up to 45 cm add up to length, for the most part, 30 cm and the greatest weight is 110g.


NameIndian Scad
Scientific NameDecapterus russelli
SynonymsCaranx russelli,Caranx kiliche,Decapterus lajang

Vernacular names of  Decapterus russelli

  • English: Indian scad
  • Afrikaans: Indiese skad
  • Arabic: Sadat
  • Danish: Indisk hestemakrel
  • French: Comète indienne
  • Japanese: Indo-maruaji, インドマルアジ
  • Malayalam: തിരിയാന്
  • Marathi: शिताप
  • Portuguese: Charro-de-Russel
  • Tamil: முன்டக்கண் கிளிச்சி

History of  Decapterus russelli 

Grown-up Indian Scad is benthic and they form huge schools in deep water, despite the fact that they may once in a while be discovered inshore in little gatherings where there are protected bays. It is the most widely recognized types of Decapterus in seaside waters and on open shallows of the Indian Ocean.

Their fundamental prey is littler planktonic spineless creatures, with an investigation off India finding that the prawn named Acetes indicus being the most various prey for both grown-up and adolescent fish.

However bigger examples chase a wide assortment of suitable fish, including Lactarius, lanternfishes, Leiognathus spp,  eels, Saurida tumbil, Boleophthalamus sp, Nemipterus spp.

Bregmaceros mcclellandi, Polynemus indicus, Polynemus heptadactylus, Cynoglossus spp, Stolephorus spp, and Trichiurus lepturus. It is host to the ectoparasitic copepod Lernanthropus decapteri. Moreover, it achieves sexual development and maturity at around 1 year old and around 12 cm long.

Fossil records of  Decapterus russelli 

Moreover, Decapterus russelli is fished in a large amount, from wherever it occurs, generally utilizing trawls and seine nets. In 1999 the aggregate catch was barely short of 160,000 tons, with the two main fishing countries being Malaysia and Thailand, which landed 70,160 tons and 82,000 tons individually.

Since the 1950s the heaviness of Indian scad landed changes and there is no expanding or diminishing pattern clear in the populace, although in south-east Asia there has been a clear increase in exertion which has not seen an expansion in arrivals proposing the fishery is over-abused.

Besides this, it is for the most part marketed fresh, might be salted or dried, and also being sold canned and frozen.

Distinctive Features

There are many distinctive features of Indian scad, some are mentioned below:

Geo-distribution of Decapterus russelli

You can found Decapterus russelli throughout the Indian Ocean, from the shores of eastern Africa from the Suez’s Gulf as far south from South Africa and then to Indonesia, eastwards into the western Pacific Ocean, and then from Japan in the south and north to Australia.

It is a Lessepsian asylum seeker which has attacked the eastern Mediterranean from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal, it was first recorded off Israel in 2005 and is currently very common as far north as south-eastern Turkey. Besides that, this specie has turned into an imperative species in neighborhood fisheries


Total dorsal soft rays: 28-31; Total dorsal spines: 9; Anal spines: 3; Vertebrae: 24; Anal soft beams: 25 – 28. Parallel line bent underneath soft dorsal and with 30-44 powerful scutes; shading pale blue-green above and silvery beneath; caudal fin hyaline to yellowish in color; dorsal blades hyaline basally, light grey distally.

Opercle with a tiny, dark spot; an opercular film with a smooth edge. Nose longer than a diameter of eye; squarish lower back edge of maxilla; upper jaw with tiny teeth anteriorly. These fish have delicate dorsal and butt-centric fins generally not falcate; low and pectoral blade sub falcate

Food Habits of  Decapterus Russelli 

Research on the food and nourishing habits for Decapterus russelli demonstrated that it is a meat eater, subsisting largely on shellfish, polychaetes, fish, salps, miscellaneous things, and mollusks.

Shellfish was a very dominant creature in various size groups. Besides this, the fish demonstrated an inclination to other food fish as they developed. The intensity of the feeding was very high during some of the months. Encouraging and feeding power was high in adolescents pursued by a juvenile, developing and spent fishes.

Food Habits of  Decapterus Russelli 

Research on the feeding habit and food for fishes is essential to comprehend their situation in the food web in an ecology. In perspective of its significance, impressive consideration is being paid to this subject lately.


Marine; depth range 40 – 275 m, benthopelagic.

Communication & Reception of Decapterus russelli

Tactical is used for communication between each other


Maturity: Lm 16.1,

Max length: 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed;

Published weight: 110.00 g

Range: 14 – 24.5 cm

Common length: 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed;

A lifespan of  Decapterus russelli 

The lifespan which is recorded of Indian scad is 3.8-6.7 years.

Health benefits of  Decapterus russelli 

There are many health benefits of Indian scad.

Heart disease

Mackerel has been appeared to be very effective and efficient for, decreasing the danger of heart illness, as well as a warning for dying from the heart illness because of its omega-3 unsaturated fats.

A few analysts have discovered that omega-3 unsaturated fat is much more successful at decreasing heart attacks than some normally endorsed medications utilized for bringing down cholesterol.

Lowering triglycerides

Elevated amounts of triglycerides in the body have been connected to heart stroke and diseases. The most well-known foundations for a high triglyceride level are weight and ineffectively looked after diabetes.

For the most part, originated from an inert way of life and a horrible eating routine that incorporates a high admission of sugary nourishments, starches, and liquor. Fish that are rich in omega-3 unsaturated fats, similar to mackerel, have been ended up being extremely viable in bringing down triglyceride levels.

Good for the blood

Other fish and Mackerel rich in omega-3 unsaturated fats are useful for the blood. They help with blood pressure and blood circulation by permitting veins to extend and be more versatile.


Awful cholesterol particles, otherwise called (LDL) low-density lipoprotein, are brought down by the fish oil found in mackerel, while great cholesterol particles, known as (HDL) high-density lipoproteins, are expanded by the fish oil found in mackerel.

The way that mackerel can help bring down cholesterol levels by taking care of cholesterol from being absorbed in the digestive tract, additionally allow it to lower the blood pressure.


Mackerel can enable you to prevent and battle disease by lessening the measure of specialists.


Mackerel is an oily fish and have been known to lessen the agony, firmness and swollen joints related to joint inflammation. This makes mackerel an effective and efficient supplement for pain medications.


  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Subphylum: Vertebrata
  • Superclass: Gnathostomata
  • Class: Actinopterygii
  • Order: Perciformes
  • Suborder: Percoidei
  • Family: Carangidae
  • Genus: Decapterus
  • Species: D. russelli

Known Hazards of  Decapterus russelli 

Due to the high amount of anthropogenic marine debris in the wildlife and marine habitats, we guessed that anthropogenic garbage would be surely present in sea animals which are sold for human consumption.

Fishes of the family Carangidae, Decapterus macrosoma, Decapterus russelli and Decapterus macarellus were gathered from the Jordanian Aqaba drift amid 2008-2009 for the assurance of their metal absorptions in different organs like liver, muscle, kidney, gonads, stomach and gills nourishment substance utilizing flame (AAS) atomic absorption spectrometry.

The outcomes demonstrated critical contrasts in metal concentration between the species. Furthermore, the present examination demonstrated noteworthy differences between a large number of metal components among various organs of similar species.

Similar Species

  • Mackerel scad
  • Torpedo scad
  • Herring scad
  • Blackfin scad
  • Shrimp scad

Fun Facts of  Decapterus russelli 

Besides all the hazards, there are also some fun facts about the Decapterus russelli.

DECAPTERUS RUSSELLI: Mackerel scad, Indian Scad fish

Although, these fun facts are quite interesting yet there are some dangers as well.